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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw:8080/dspace/handle/987654321/30176


    Title: 澳門博彩業之研究 : 發展歷程、政府監管及影響效果
    Other Titles: A study on gambling industry in macao : focus on the process of development, the government regulation and effect of impact.
    Authors: 陳媛玟;Chen, Yuan-wen
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    李志強;Li, Chi-keung;王健全;Wang, Chien-chuan
    Keywords: 澳門;博彩;賭博;博彩業;政府監管;Macao;betting;Gambling;gambling industry;government regulation
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:25:46 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 近年來「賭博合法化」的浪潮席捲全球,作為一個人口約五十五萬人、面積僅廿九點二平方公里的彈丸之地,澳門近年來驚人的經濟成長數字,確實令全世界都無法忽視,其所憑藉的,就是已有超過四百七十年歷史的博彩業。澳門博彩業從十六世紀開埠源起,到十九世紀正式合法化,迄今已跨越漫長的五個世紀,其間歷經不同的興衰時期,深深地影響著澳門的經濟、政治、社會與文化等各個層面;所以,有人說「要真正了解澳門,首先就要深入了解澳門的博彩業」,可謂一語中的。
    本文主要針對澳門博彩業的三項議題研究探討:一、探討澳門博彩業發展之源起、時代背景,詳述其發展歷程、重大事件及人物等,並歸納分析其意義。二、探討澳門博彩業之政府監管,以監管之機關組織及法律制度為主,並比較澳門與他國之監管政策、機關之異同,以及檢視現行博彩業監管之法律制度不足之處和改善方向。三、分別從經濟層面、社會層面與環境層面三個面向探討博彩業對澳門社會與發展產生之影響。
    在發展歷程部分,澳門博彩業的歷史可說是一部澳門近代史的縮影,其發展歷經四次賭權轉變,其中第四次的賭權轉變,也就是2002年澳門特區政府決定打破壟斷專營、開放賭權、引進外資,不僅徹底改變了澳門博彩業的結構,更大幅提升其博彩業的經營水準和國際競爭力,進而帶動起澳門整體經濟的快速成長。
    其次,有關博彩業的政府監管,澳門的管制機關係屬「決策/執行二元分立制」,為強化其獨立性與權威性,以因應博彩業快速成長所衍生之問題,建議宜參考美國各州設立獨立的管理委員會。而在博彩業監管法律方面,針對當前因博彩業急速發展所出現之法規不足與滯後的問題,建議宜從當地實際狀況與需求出發、再借鑒外來制度,加速制定與時俱進的博彩業監管法律,並提升監管力度,以貫徹監管政策。
    最後,關於博彩業對澳門社會的影響,以經濟層面來說,博彩業作為澳門經濟的支柱產業,帶動澳門整體經濟成長,其貢獻不容置疑,但須留意「一業獨大」帶來的弊病;就社會層面而言,包括澳門人力資源分配及社會資源分配的失衡,致使其他產業萎縮與貧富差距加大,還有日益嚴重的病態賭徒問題等皆不容忽視;從環境的層面來說,博彩業在短短幾年間的急速增長,對澳門環境保護帶來某些新的挑戰,基礎設施不足和博彩社區化的問題逐一浮現,因此,澳門城市環境與發展方向的整體規劃佈局,可說是現階段澳門特區政府面對之重要問題。
    As “gambling should be decriminalized and become lawful” has become a worldwide trend, Macao, a tiny territory with merely 550,000 population and 29.2 square kilometers, has virtually astonished the entire world by its astounding economic growth. That should be attributed to the 470-year-old gambling industry. In Macao, gambling industry started when such harbor was first open to the world in the 16th century. In the subsequent five centuries, the betting industry has undergone eventful vicissitudes and has played virtually a pivotal role in Macao’s economy, politics, societies and culture. This widespread saying “To know Macao, one should first of all know Macao’s gambling industry” explains it very well.
    The present thesis is primarily intended to look into Macao’s gambling industry through three major issues: I. The origin, backgrounds of the times behind Macao’s gambling industry, with details about the development process, major vents and celebrities, with efforts to generalize and analyze the significance behind. II. A probe into government regulation beyond Macao’s gambling industry, preliminary on the surveillant organization and legal systems, with a comparison with surveillance policies, authorities in other countries to find out the similarities and differences, to look into the inadequacy and orientations for improvement of the existent gambling industry. III. A probe into the impact of the gambling industry upon the society in Macao through three aspects, economy, society and environments.
    In terms of development process, the history of Macao’s gambling industry is virtually an epitome of the contemporary history of Macao. The development underwent four major transfers of the betting powers. Among them, the fourth transfer took place in 2002 where the Macao Special Administrative Region smashed the betting monopolization and liberalized the betting privilege to foreign investors. That transfer virtually changed the structure of Macao’s gambling industry on the one hand and significantly upgraded the management level and competitive edge of the gambling industry in the international community. In turn, that transfer incurred the economic growth by leaps and bounds in Macao.
    Next, as to the government regulation behind the gambling industry, Macao’s control organ is under “separate policymaking process/implementation system”. To intensify the independence and authoritativeness to deal with problems which came out midst the rapid growth of the gambling industry, it is proposed hat the independent Administrative Commission like those established in various states in the United States should be established. In the laws for surveillance over the gambling industry, amidst the inadequacy and lagging behind the laws amidst the rapid growth of gambling industry, it is proposed that Macao should aim at the hands-on demand and situations by borrowing systems from other countries, to accelerate enactment of the laws for surveillance over the gambling industry, with efforts to boost the surveillance power to assure thorough implementation.
    Finally, as to the impact of gambling industry upon the society in Macao, in the aspect of economy alone, gambling industry has played the pivot of Macao economy, boosting the economic takeoff in Macao, casting tremendous transcript. The Macao authorities are, nevertheless, seriously advised to watch the negative problems incurred by the “boom by a sole industry”. In the aspect of the society, amidst the imbalance in human resources distribution and social resource distribution, other industries have been withering and the gap between the wealthy and the poor has been widening. The worsening problems of the unsound mentality of gamblers deserve serious watchfulness. In the environmental aspect, the gambling industry has grown by leaps and bounds within just a few years and has brought up new challenge against the environmental protection. The problems of the inadequate infrastructures and worsening betting communities have been surfacing one after another. The Special Administrative Region government of Macao is, therefore, seriously advised to look into the orientation of development in urban environment and the overall planning.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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