本論文採歷史研究途徑，透過中共黨史文獻的分析，輔以毛澤東研究與中共理論的既有學術資源，來說明毛澤東領導的農業社會主義改造運動，在中華人民共和國政治發展上的角色，以及產生的影響。 The Communist Party of China founded the state in 1949. They faced how to bring the Chinese agriculture into the socialist stage. Under the leadership of Mao Zedong, the CPC carried on Agrarian Reform, and realized land to the tiller.
Mao thuoght the CPC had ought to promote the collectivization degree to improve the productivity of agriculture. Soon he carried on the Socialist Transformation of Agriculture . Such leaders as Mao, etc. drafted “ The General Line for the Transition Period ”. Production cooperative societies begun developing, however, inner-party debates at the speed of cooperative transformation rised. Through political struggles, most peasant households joined the higher cooperative societies in 1956, and then the Socialist Transformation of Agriculture was finished ahead of time.
This movement started practice to socialist ideology of the CPC, and had shown Mao’s highest authority, opening to suspicion that political leadship and speciality of governing was overbalancing seriously in the CPC at that time.
This thesis adopts historical approach for study. By the analysis of the CPC history documents, academic resources with Mao Zedong''s research and the CPC ideology, it makes the definition to the role and effect of the movement led by Mao on PRC’s political develepment.