After it’s regime establishment in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party regime has formulated strategies for development in different periods of time to handle various political and economic situations. After the implementation of Deng Xiao-ping’s Reform and Open policy in 1978, the economic growth of Mainland China in the past two decades has achieved astonishing performance. However, behind the rapid economic growth, Mainland China also encountered many grave problems. Among them, the increasingly expanded development gap between regions has not only affected the future economic development of Mainland China but also threatened the existence of the Chinese Communist Party regime. The North-Eastern Region of Mainland China has long been regarded as “The Eldest Son of the Republic” which was the first region where the planned economic system was implemented after the establishment of the Chinese Communist Party regime. After 1978, with the constant realization of the reform of market economic system of the Socialism, the North-Eastern Region has already lost its inherent development advantages and faced with declination of economic superiority as well as continuous economic deterioration, which has led to a number of complicated and knotty problems. In order to solve the long-existing unbalance of regional development which threats the political and social stability, alleviate the social disorder resulted from economic deterioration and, furthermore, absorb the nutrition for the next wave of economic development, the “ Reinvigorating the Outdated North-Eastern Industrial Base” policy in 2003 has officially become the vital economic development strategy of the Chinese Communist Party regime. This thesis uses the history of the regional economic development of Mainland China as foundation in its efforts to explore the phases of the regional economic development of Mainland China, the considered factors in formulating regional economic policies under different government leaders and the results of those policies, the background and objective of the “ Reinvigorating the Outdated North-Eastern Industrial Base” policy and the policy’s role in the overall regional economic development strategy implemented by the Chinese Communist Party regime. In addition, in comparing the economic data and statistics before and after the implementation of “Reinvigorating the Outdated North-Eastern Regional Industry Base” policy, this thesis also looks into the success and failure, caused problems and future prospects of the said policy by employing the following three major indexes so as to exhibit the actual effect of economic development: Economic Development Index (including GNP, income per capita, investment for foreign trade, introduction of foreign capital), Social Development Index (including human resources, employment population), System Variation Index (including industrial structure development, percentage of different ownership system).