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    Title: 中共與美國在中亞地區之競合關係
    Other Titles: Competition and cooperation between America and China in central Asia
    Authors: 劉嘉榮;Liu, Chia-jung
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 中共;美國;中亞;上海合作組織;國家利益;中亞政策;911事件;地緣政治;競合關係;China;America;Central Asia;Shanghai Cooperation Organization;National Interest;central asian policy;911 event;Geopolitics;Competition and cooperation
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:24:49 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中亞地區引發大國競逐,主要因為不可取代的戰略地位及豐富的天然資源等,再加上各國獨立初期,國家不安定、國力不振,為確保國家發展,脫離俄羅斯的統制獨裁,均採取「權力制衡」的政策,開放大國進入,冀藉由大國權力平衡下,來發展經濟實力、提升國力成長。其中對中亞最有戰略興趣的大國有中國、俄羅斯、美國、歐洲、印度、日本,以及土耳其、伊朗等地區大國。在這些大國中問,中俄美最為突出,它們在中亞地區影響最大,戰略存在最深,這三個國家構成了中亞大國關係的基本框架。
    從美國全球戰略的角度觀之,全球部署的軍事力量是保護美國全球經濟利益的必要手段。冷戰結束後美國的勢力開始進入中亞地區,主要拓展經貿活動、並傳播民主及人權的價值觀念,美國支持中亞國家保持穩定發展,是基於推動這些國家邁向民主和自由市場經濟、防止核武器和核原料的擴散,中亞的區域穩定相對促進美國的商業利益及安全利益,同時也爲了擴大自己在這一地區的影響力。「911 事件」後美國發動反恐戰爭,挾著打擊恐怖主義的旗幟前進中亞地區,無論在經濟或軍事上都持續的加碼深耕中亞地區,以擴張美國在該區域的影響力。
    另迅速崛起的中共,無論從地緣戰略或是經濟安全戰略來看,中亞地區的穩定將被中共視為影響國家利益的重要環節。它與中亞國家的關係,無論是人文、經濟、地理及歷史,甚至從地緣戰略的軌跡來看,都是密不可分的。尤其在中共「新安全觀」形成後,積極推動的「上海五國」至「上海合作組織」等機制的建構,從邊界糾紛、裁軍等安全問題,擴展至地區經貿合作的議題,皆顯示中共日益重視西部邊境的安全。美國在中亞地區的滲透與擴張的影響力,對中共這個崛起的區域強權而言,宛若「芒刺在背」;從更嚴重的角度來看,美國在中亞的軍事存在也可說是美國長期以來「圍堵中國」政策的一個具體化表現。
    美國與中共在中亞地區為了各自國家利益必產生衝突因數,對當地的權力平衡也會產生一定程度的影響。美「中」兩國的國家利益在中亞地區所產生的競合效應,對區域穩定將造成相當程度的影響。未來將隨美國藉反恐戰爭加大中亞影響力及中共擴大「上海合作組織」的運作機制,美「中」兩國在中亞地區的競合關係會持續發酵。
    The Central Asia region initiates the great nation to compete, because mainly may not substitute the strategic status and the rich natural resources and so on, in addition the various countries'' independent initial period, the country unstable, the national strength is dispirited, for guarantees the national development, is separated from Russia''s control dictatorship, adopts “the authority keeps in balance” the policy, the open great nation enters, Hebei because of the great nation authority balance under, develops the economic potentiality, the promotion national strength growth. In which most has strategic interest greatly state-owned China, Russia, US, Europe, India, Japan to the central Asia, as well as local great nations and so on Turkey, Iran. Asked in these great nations that, the Chinese and Russian America is most prominent, they are biggest in the Central Asia region influence, the strategic existence is deepest, these three countries constituted the central Asia great nation relations bare bone.
    From US global strategy angle view it, the military force which the whole world deployed is protects the American whole world economic interest the essential method. After the cold war had ended US''s influence starts to enter the Central Asia region, mainly develops the economics and trade activity, and disseminates the democracy and the human rights value idea, US supports the central Asian nation to maintain the stable development, is based on impels these countries to advance to the democracy and the open market economy, prevented the nuclear weapon and nuclear raw material proliferation, the central Asia region stable promotes US''s commercial interest and the security interests relatively, simultaneously also expanded oneself in this local influence.
    Rapidly rises in addition Chinese Communist Party, regardless of looked from the geography strategy perhaps the economic security strategy, the Central Asia region stable is regarded as by the Chinese Communist Party the influence national interest the important link. It with central Asian nation relations, regardless of is the humanities, the economy, the geography and the history, even looked from the geography strategy path, all is inseparable. The new safety” forms especially after the Chinese Communist Party, the positive impetus “the Shanghai five countries” to “Shanghai Cooperative organization” and so on the mechanism constructions, from the boundary dispute, the disarmament and so on the security problem, expand to the local economics and trade cooperation subject, all west demonstrated the Chinese Communist Party takes the frontier security day by day. US in the Central Asia region seepage and the expansion influence, the region might which rises to Chinese Communist Party this says, if “feels uneasy”; Looked from a more serious angle that, US in the central Asia military existence also may say is US “surrounds China” since long ago a policy concrete application performance.
    US and Chinese Communist Party in Central Asia region in order to respective national interest must have the conflict factor, also can have certain degree influence to the local authority balance. The America and China national interest competes gathers the effect which produces in the Central Asia region, stable will create the suitable degree to the region the influence. Future will enlarge the central Asia influence and the Chinese Communist Party will expand “Shanghai Cooperative organization” the operation mechanism along with the American affiliation war on terror, America and China in the Central Asia region competes gathers the relations to be able to ferment continually.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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