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    題名: 中國大陸高校黨政關係之研究
    其他題名: Research on party-government relation of higher education in China
    作者: 黃姮娥;Huang, Heng-e
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    張五岳;Chang, Wu-ueh
    關鍵詞: 中國大陸高校;高等教育;黨政關係;校長負責制;中國大陸高校領導管理體制;Party-Government;Higher education;China
    日期: 2007
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:24:47 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 中共政治體制與結構之運作迥異於一般民主國家,具有強烈意識型態之導向與策略,其黨的地位更具重要影響。中共自1921年組黨,經由長期鬥爭革命,於1949年建立全國性政權,控制了整個中國大陸,在長期鬥爭歷程中,為了生存,自無黨政之分,且須緊密合作,產生一元化的行動體系,至轉化為政權運作時,必然發生組織重疊,權力衝突的問題。
    中共黨政矛盾是政治體制導致的結果,源於堅持領導的政治制度所導致的行政權雙中心體制,即由中共黨的領導機關和行政領導機關實際上共同行使,分享行政權的領導體制,製造了共產黨國家所獨有的一種政治現象。
    在領導體制的演變中,可以看到一個顯著的特點,以中國大陸高校校長所扮演的角色來說,凡是國家集中力量經濟建設的時候,就很強調發揮校長的作用;強調階級鬥爭時,校長就退居次要地位。這說明了學校內部領導體制的變革和國家政治形勢的變化是密不可分的。
    以中國大陸一千多所普通高校來說,總計約有55%的高校並不由教育部門管理,而是由中央或省級政府其他業務部門管理。國家對高等教育的財政撥款,即高等教育的事業費和基建費,分別掌握在中央和地方政府財政部門和計劃部門手裡,教育部門只有直屬高等學校經費的支配權。此一條塊分割的辦學體制,在現今明顯產生不少弊端。
    本文先就中共建黨的理論基礎,及中共黨政關係的歷史沿革予以說明,次就大陸高校黨政關係的演變與變革、其黨政關係的體系內涵及運作方式等深入探討,進而掌握其未來發展的動向。
    The political regime and structure in China operates very differently from the way an average democratic country does in its strongly ideology-oriented tendency and strategies alike, and its political party have particularly great influence. Established in 1921, the Communist Party has built up a nation-wide regime and gained control of the whole continent in 1949 after long-term battles and revolutions. During the process of the chronic conflicts, the political party had to cooperate closely with the government for survival, and a centralized action system has therefore come into existence. However, when it became necessary for the party to be transformed into the actual political power operation, the problems of overlapping organizations and conflict of power are certain to arise. The contradiction between the Communist Party and Government in China results from its political regime, as well as the administrative power dual-centered system that stems from the strongly-leading political system. In other words, the system is in fact one whose administrative power is exercised and shared by the apparatus led by the Communist Party and the administrative leading apparatus, and thus has given birth to a political phenomenon that is exclusive to Communist countries. We can see a remarkable characteristic in the evolvement of its leading system. Take the role the President of Mainland Colleges plays for instance, when the country concentrates its power on economic construction, the function of the President would be very much emphasized; when Class Struggle is stressed, however, the President would become of subordinate importance. This explains how closely related the reformation of the inner leading system in schools and the transformation of the political situation of the nation are. Take the normal colleges whose number out in China for example, there are approximately 55% of them are administered by the Central government or the government at the provincial level rather than by Education departments. The nation’s financial allocation on its higher education, e.g. the operating expenses and Capital Construction Expenditure of Higher Education, are controlled by the Financial and Planning Departments of the Central and Local government respectively, and the Education Department only has the eminent domain for the budget of those directly subordinate schools. This divided school-running system has obviously brought forth various abuses in society nowadays. This thesis will first explain the theoretical basis on which the Communist Party was established and the history of the party-government relation in China. Further efforts will be made to discuss in depth by the development and reformation of the party-government relation of higher education in China and the system substance of its party-government relation and its operation with an attempt to grasp the direction for future development.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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