|題名: ||「一國兩制」下香港政黨發展 : 民主黨個案研究|
|其他題名: ||The development of Hong Kong political parties under "One Country, Two Systems" : a case study of the Democratic Party|
一國兩制下香港政黨發展 : 民主黨個案研究
|作者: ||鄒麗泳;Tsou, Li-yung|
|關鍵詞: ||一國兩制;基本法;選舉制度;政制檢討;民主黨;民主化;“One country, two systems”;Basic Law;electoral system;review of political institutions;The Democratic Party;Democratization|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:24:35 (UTC+8)|
It has not been long since the rise of political parties of Hong Kong, and the development of which has yet been sound and sturdy. After the return to China in 1997, the original market-oriented Hong Kong economy based on capitalism has turned to the economy based on socialism with Chinese characteristics. Operated in conformity with “The Basic Law of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China” under the policy of “One Country, Two Systems,” the development of Hong Kong political parties (The Democratic Party) is a unique case throughout the world.
Using The Democratic Party as a subject, this study is to investigate the development of Hong Kong political parties under the “One Country, Two Systems” policy, and explore the political system, electoral system, and the democratization process of Hong Kong, which The Democratic Party has inevitably encountered during its development. Objectives of this study include: (1) To clarify the frame and system between Beijing and the government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR). (2) To probe into the political system and the operation of political parties in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (3) To examine the influence of electoral system on Hong Kong political parties including The Democratic Party. (4) To prospect the probability of party realignment. (5) To discuss the influence of Hong Kong democratization on China democratization.
This study examines developments of The Democratic Party after the return of Hong Kong to China from four different aspects. First is to deal with the political system, the design of legal systems in the Basic Law, government structure in HKSAR, and the dispute of autonomy between China and Hong Kong. Second is to observe vicissitude correlations between electoral system and political parties based on the electoral system. Third is to discuss the background of the forming of The Democratic Party, internal discrepancies, and their relationships with other parties in the democratic clique. Fourth is to investigate the democratization progress in Hong Kong.
Findings of this study:
1. As for the objectives of political systems, the legal and administrative systems based on Basic Law are: (1) to be controlled by Central People’s Government with a dominating administrative power: Beijing holds the right to institute and interpret the Basic Law, to commission the Chief Executive of HKSAR. (2) Power and functions exercised by the Legislative Council are to be weakened: from the constitution of the Legislative Council, councilors’ limited right to initiate motions, and ballot rigging through grouping mechanism, the legislative body performs a role of monitoring only, while the administration is beyond actual control. (3) The democratization is to be put back: Beijing vetoed dual universal suffrage and refuses to set up a timetable for suffrage. (4) The development of political parties is to be obstructed: the Chief Executive of HKSAR is not a member of a political party and the way the Chief Executive is elected simply protects the interests of industrial and commercial circles.
2. Electoral system in Hong Kong is only a “semi-democratic” system, which is reflected in: (1) The Chief Executive is not elected from general elections by all Hong Kong citizens but chosen by a committee of 800 Hong Kong residents, which is not a universal suffrage. (2) The formation of Legislative Council is half from direct elections and half from indirect elections, which is not in conformity with ballot equalitarianism. (3) A number of 102 members in the District Council is still by appointment which does not have the will of the citizenry.
3. Bottlenecks of developments of The Democratic Party include: (1) Organizations in the basic level is not solid. (2) The lack of worthy successors in the leadership and poor supersedure between the old and the new. (3) The Article 45 Concern Group may form a political party in 2006 which will challenge the position of The Democratic Party, while the merge of pro-China parties, Democratic Alliance for Betterment of Hong Kong and The Hong Kong Progressive Alliance, may induce the recombination of all parties in the democratic clique.
Critical points of turning lie on the following: awakening of democracy among Hong Kong residents, which will be beneficial to democratic campaigns; Beijing has changed to a more practical manner in ruling Hong Kong; Donald Tsang Yam-Kuen, the Chief Executive, has been making efforts to nurture a more harmonious relationship with the Legislative Council.
(1) The progress of democratization in Hong Kong relies on the attitude of Beijing, the timetable of universal suffrage, the ambits of democracy, which are all to be decided by Beijing. (2) Economies of Hong Kong and China are going to be united as one, economy and business is actually “One Country, One System.” (3) Beijing encircles and suppresses democracy, and persists in “dictatorship of one party,” the experience of graduality, controlability, and experimentalilty of Hong Kong democratization is hard to catalyze the democratization in China within a short period of time.