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    題名: 兩岸3C零售通路採購決策分析
    其他題名: Purchasing decision in 3C retail : compare to China & Taiwan
    作者: 詹文棋;Chan, Wen-chi
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    陳建甫;Chen, Chien-fu
    關鍵詞: 3C通路;採購決策;層級分析法;家電下鄉;3C retail industry;Purchasing Decision;AHP;China’s rural electronics policy
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:24:27 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 為因應2008年金融風暴的衝擊,中國政府陸續推出「家電下鄉」、「家電進城」等政策,希望透過補貼業者與消費者來擴大家電內需市場,以維持中國經濟的持續增長。這波家電補貼措施,除了讓中國海爾等本土家電業者受惠外,更因為龐大的3C商機與複雜的零售通路,成為台灣家電業者所關切的焦點。
    相較於台灣3C通路的激烈競爭,中國3C零售通路仍處於發展階段,通路採購決策除受到總體政策及消費者需求影響外,也受到不同經營模式及績效指標所影響。本研究蒐集與3C零售通路及採購決策有關的文獻,並訪問3C零售通路的高階主管,歸納出五項目標構面及廿項評估指標。
    透過應用「層級分析法 (Analytic Hierarchy Process,AHP)」為分析工具,有效問卷共三十位專家。發現影響台灣3C零售通路採購決策因素目標構面的優先次序是:「產品力(優勢向量 0.381)」、「綜合毛利額(優勢向量 0.283)」、「行銷構面(優勢向量 0.150)」、「交易條件(優勢向量 0.118)」及「供應商特性(優勢向量 0.068)」。影響中國3C零售通路採購決策因素目標構面的優先次序則為:「行銷構面(優勢向量 0.445)」、「產品力(優勢向量 0.240) 、「綜合毛利額(優勢向量 0.155)」、「交易條件(優勢向量 0.088)」、「供應商特性(優勢向量 0.071)」。
    另分析台灣 3C 零售通路將所有評估指標依優勢向量排序發現,「性價比(整層級權0.160)」是最重要的採購決策指標,其他前五名包括:「品牌市佔率及指名度(整層級權重 0.134)」、「商品迴轉率(整層級權重 0.126)」、 「銷貨收入(整層級權重 0.091)」、 「促銷規劃(整層級權重 0.080」。相對地,最不具競爭優勢的決策指標有下述三項:「配送效率及時性」、「供應商財務能力及」、 「商品促陳規劃」。
    而中國大陸3C零售通路將所有評估指標依優勢向量排序則呈現,「專櫃設計及導購員(整層級權重 0.229)」是最重要的採購決策指標,其他前五名包括:「促銷規劃(整層級權重 0.125)」、「性價比(整層級權重 0.100)」、「品牌市佔率及指名度(整層級權重 0.073)」、 「銷貨收入(整層級權重 0.073」。相對地,最不具競爭優勢的決策指標有下述三項:「配送效率及時性」、 「應付帳款天數」及「業務人員特性」。
    從兩岸3C零售通路採購決策的差異化,台灣3C通路重視產品的性價比,中國通路則重視,行銷構面之專櫃設計及導購員;此一結果充份體現中國通路仍處於發展階段,而台灣則處於成熟階段。台商進入中國經營3C零售通路,目前以國美電器及、蘇寧電器為主的寡佔型態下,以網路銷售為主的虛擬通路預期將仍有極大成長空間。另外,邁向成熟化的台灣3C通路,在兩岸資源整合的態勢下,台灣3C產品供應商除援引中國的製造優勢外,更應正視中國的資金及技術,整合兩岸各具優勢資源,創造品牌及產品最大優勢;其次產品產地,「台灣製造」深為消費者所信賴,台商應以正視本土製造的價值。
    建議兩岸3C零售通路業者及產品供應商,除購買中心組織採購決策之因素外,亦應關注政府政策對消費者導引消費的影響;另3C通路商應改善與供應商之關係,精進營銷模式,提昇服務,進化管理流程;所有決策思惟都應該回歸消費者需求。
    To decrease the impact of financial crisis in year 2008, the Chinese government started up the rural electronics policy in 2009 wishing to expand the domestic demand and market of home appliance by providing subsidies to manufacturers and consumers. The policy not only benefits the domestic electronics manufacturers such as the “Haier”, but also creates business opportunities for the supply chain of consumer electronics.

    The 3C retail in China is under the developing stage compared with the drastically competitiveness in Taiwan . The purchasing strategies are affected by economic policy and consumer demand as well as the different business model and performance indicators. Therefore, this study focused on the purchasing decision-making of the 3C retail in China and Taiwan . Through collecting documents of purchasing decision and interviewing the executives of 3C retailers, this research summarized the total of five target dimensions and twenty evaluation indicators.

    This study employed the method of “Analytic Hierarchy Process” (AHP) to classify the priority and compare evaluation indicators after the survey. The major findings are the followings. The five target dimensions respectively affect purchasing decision of 3C retailers in Taiwan . Taiwan’s 3C retail experts emphasized on “Product power (priority vector 0.381)”, “comprehensive gross profit margin(priority vector 0.283) ”, “marketing dimensions (priority vector 0.150)”, “terms and conditions(priority vector 0.118) ”, and “supplier features(priority vector 0.068)”.

    On the other hand, China’s 3C retail experts focused on “marketing dimensions (priority vector 0.445)”, “product power (priority vector 0.240)”, “comprehensive gross profit margin(priority vector 0.155) ”, “terms and conditions(priority vector 0.088) ”, and “supplier features(priority vector 0.071)”.

    The most important evaluation indicators that affect purchasing decision of 3C retailers in Taiwan is price versus performance ratio (the weight is 0.160). The others are brand market share and brand specify (the weight is 0.134), merchandising turnover rate (the weight is 0.126), sales revenue (the weight is 0.091), and promotional planning (the weight is 0.080). Relatively, the less significant evaluation indicators are distribution efficiency and real-time, suppliers’ financial capability and planning and promoting products.

    In China, the most important evaluation indicators that affect purchasing decision of 3C retailers is counter design and shopping guide (the weight is 0.229). Promotional planning (the weight is 0.125), price versus performance ratio (the weight is 0.100), brand market share and brand specify (the weight is 0.073), and sales revenue (the weight is 0.073). Relatively, the less significant evaluation indicators are distribution efficiency and real-time, accounts payable days and characteristics of sales person.

    The procurement strategies of consumer electronics retailers from Taiwan and China are significantly solid and different because of the distinctiveness of market and business model.

    This study finally provided some suggestions for the consumer electronics retailers and suppliers. First, these companies have to consider the procurement strategies factors of the buying center. Secondly, companies need to comprehend that influence the consumer consumption. Thirdly, the 3C retail and product suppliers have to build up the strong relationship to enhance the operation and sale model, better service and upgrade management process. The most important of all is that all decision should be made to bring up the level of customer satisfaction.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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