|其他題名: ||A probe into transfer of power of China's national leaders --- from Jiang, Zemin to Hu, Jintao|
|作者: ||劉天祥;Liu, Tien-hsiang|
|關鍵詞: ||權力繼承;政治轉移;派系;集體領導;political succession;transfer of power;Political transfer;Faction;collective leadership|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:24:13 (UTC+8)|
|摘要: || 政治權力繼承向來是倍受民眾關注的話題，全球任何國家皆然。民主法制國家，對於權力轉換，自有一套透由民意為基礎的選舉機制來產生新的領導者；然而，集權專制的共產國家則否，它們的權力繼承可能透過鬥爭、革命、指定，或是宮廷政變而產生，相對於民主國家，共產國家的權力繼承顯然複雜多變，而且更不可預期。|
Transfer of Power is a hot issue in almost every country of the world. In a democratic state, a national leader is elected through democratic system. However, in an autocracy, a state ruler may come to power through political struggle, revolution, designation, or coup. Compared to democracies, transfer of power in communist countries is apparently much more complicated and unpredictable.
Transfer of power in China has occurred from the first generation leader Mao Zhedong, down to Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, until the current fourth-generation leader Hu Jintao. The transfer of power has changed from bloody political struggle to the more moderate way of picking out the suitable candidates. Although an institutionalized system of selecting government cadres at various levels are already in place, the selection of the nation’s core leaders is far from transparent. In this socialism state unpredictable “human factors” play a key role in transfer of power. This essay tries to analyze the process and future trend of transfer of power based on the current personnel mechanism, hoping to offer a better understanding of the operational mechanism in China’s top leadership.
There are six chapters in this thesis. Chapter 1 is the introduction. Chapter 2 reviews the transfer of power from the first generation to the fourth. Chapter 3 focuses on selection and assignment of cadres at the provincial level during Jiang and Hu administrations. Personnel system reforms and transfer of power patterns are also analyzed in this chapter. Chapter 4 focuses the transfer trend based on leading cadres’ tenure and personnel system changes. Chapter 5 discusses the formation of China’s collective leadership based on Hu Jintao’s past work experiences, and probes into the trend of China’s elite politics. These five chapters give an overview of the factors affecting China’s transfer of power and conclude that collective leadership and elite politics are currently the best way to maintain political stability. The last chapter draws conclusion and findings from the previous five chapters, and raises follow-on research directions. It also predicts possible candidates for the fifth-generation leadership.
The power transfer patterns for each administration are not the same. Mao Zhe-dong launched the disastrous Culture Revolution to purge Liu Sao-chi and Lin Biao in order to consolidate his personal power. This is a typical example of a bloody power struggle. Deng Xiaoping defeated Hua Guofon and set up the early talent selection system. This system marked the end of a strongman era in China. Jiang Zhemin came to power as the result of the June-4 incident. Hu Jintao was appointed the state leader by his predecessor two generations before. Bloodshed, power struggle and turmoil during transfer of power have been less common onward throughout the four administrations, and a more institutionalized system is present. This is a positive trend. It is hoped that this essay would interest researchers in China’s transfer of power, and give subsequences some insight into this closed-door process.