馬祖於一九四九年前，只是一個沒沒無聞的小海島，分別隸屬福建省的連江縣、長樂縣與羅源縣，島上居民不多，以討海為生，大多是過客的心態，在馬祖暫歇棲息，一陣子後又返回大陸去了，很少人知道有這麼一個海島，她也甚少與外界接觸。 一九四九年的一場國共內戰之後，馬祖突然湧進了一大批國軍部隊和逃難來的福建沿海居民，外來的這批軍人與百姓人多勢眾，又是以「政府」自居，很自然的佔領並統治了馬祖這幾座島嶼及住在島上的居民，還設立了軍事指揮所和政府機關。 從此，馬祖與金門成為中華民國政府要反攻大陸的前哨與跳板，與台灣是命運共同體，是反共的堡壘，實施戰地政務達三十六年之久，挨了中共砲彈近三十年，馬祖始終毅立不撓，沒有被中共攻佔，是台澎安全的屏障。直到一九七九年，才停止砲擊，一九九二年終止戰地政務。 兩岸關係最緊張時，馬祖是無日稍歇，名符其實的戰地，砲火隆隆，不少軍民犧牲了性命，這是那個年代無奈的悲歌。兩岸關係逐漸緩和後，馬祖成為兩岸民間小額貿易的據點，民間互動頻繁，直到二○○一年元月，正式小三通合法化，馬祖與對岸的福建省福州市關係更緊密。 然而，在兩岸尚未統合之前，馬祖仍是命運難卜。尤其，台灣國防部的逐年大量裁軍，海防空虛，居民少了軍人的消費群，生意一落千丈，防務安全也令人憂慮。加上小三通後，馬祖的經濟有被大陸磁吸的嚴重現象，馬祖的前途何去何從，馬祖的明天在那裡，成為居民心中最大的疑惑！ 本論文係針對兩岸關係政治變遷中，對馬祖軍事安全及政治經濟方面的影響，參考諸多文獻，並深度訪談軍政、民代等意見領袖，及作直接抽樣的問卷調查。 期能發現兩岸關係的政治變遷對馬祖有何利弊的影響，馬祖居民的疑慮有那些？對於自己的未來有何寄望？究竟要往大陸？台灣？還是留在馬祖發展？最後作出了研究的發現，結論與建議，希望能給關心馬祖未來的朋友及馬祖的主政者另外一個思考的方向。 Matsu was an unknown island before 1949 and belonged to Lian Jiang County, Chang Le County and Loh Yuan County of Fu Chien Province. Matsu was scarcely populated where most of the residents lived on fishing and considered themselves as passing travelers only. They often returned to China after a short stay in Matsu. Very few people knew about this island and Matsu rarely had contact with other places.After Chinese civil was in 1949, a large group of Kaomintang troop and many refugees from Fu Chien coast side fled to Matsu. These people occupied Matsu and its islanders as the government and established military commander’s offices and government agencies.After the war, Matsu and Chinmen were the outposts and gangways of the Chinese government for recovering China. These islands and Taiwan become the same community and the fortress of recovering China. 30 years after the after the implementation of battlefield government affairs Matsu stood strong even after the bombing by China for almost 30 years. Matsu was never seized by China and has become the shield for the safety of Taiwan and Pescadores. The bombing didn’t stopped until 1970 and the battlefield government affairs was terminated in 1992.Matsu was the true battlefield at the time of high tension between China and Taiwan. Many soldiers have lost their lives. It was the tragedy at the time. After the tension between China and Taiwan alleviated, Matsu become the base of small scale commerce between people across the strait and there were a lot of activities held by non-government organizations. Matsu has also established a closed relation with Fu Chou City of Fu Chien Province across the strait after the Mini-Three Link was legalized.However, the fate of Matsu may still be uncertain before integration of China and Taiwan. Moreover, the large scale of disarmament by the Department of Defense, Taiwan has also taken away the potential consumers in Matsu which caused the downgrade of business and exposed Matsu to defense safety issue. After the Mini-Three Link, Matsu’s economy was greatly affected by China. The future of Matsu has become the residents’ major concern.This study focused on the influence of the political change of cross-strait relation on the military safety issue, politics and economy of Matsu. This study contains data from literature review, interviews with leaders of military officers and political representative and survey from direct samples.
This study intended to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of the political change of cross-strait relation to Matsu, issues concerned by Matsu residents, and expectation for the residents’ future in China, Taiwan or Matsu. It is hoped that the findings, conclusion and suggestions of this study will provide for Matsu’ future residents and its government officials a new way of thinking.