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    Title: 國有企業職工下崗對中國大陸社會的影響
    Other Titles: The influence of laid-off workers of state-owned enterprises on thesociety of mainland China.
    Authors: 李健新;Lee, Chien-hsin
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 失業;國企改革;職工下崗;社會影響;社會保障制度;Unemployment;The innovation of state firms;Laid-off worker;Social influence;Social protection
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:23:34 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 自從中國大陸於1978年鄧小平復出之後,改弦易轍推行「改革開放」的政策,導入資本主義經濟的思想概念,使中國大陸近二十多年來平均以二位數的經濟成長率快速發展。在亮麗經濟成長的背後,中共進行的經濟體制改革,從計劃經濟體系向社會主義市場經濟體系轉型的過程當中,卻是無可避免地對於舊有的體制造成巨大的衝擊。而中共為了因應新的經濟體制的需要,在國有企業體制的改革上也在國家的強而有力的指導下持續進行著,以符合新的經濟體制的要求。
    然而,在向社會主義市場經濟體制轉換的過程中,市場的效率機制對於國有企業產生了作用;為了面對經濟體制轉變所帶來的市場競爭機制,傳統國有企業的經營方式,也要有所改革與轉變,以因應外來的挑戰。因此,在國有企業改革進行的同時,卻是讓在國有企業工作的職工承受下崗失業的苦果,對於中國大陸社會內部卻產生了許多社會不穩定的現象。
    而從本論文的研究中,可以歸納出以下幾點:
    一、國企職工下崗失業是由原本內部的人口結構、經濟體制的轉換及中共對國有企業的改革,三種因素綜合起來,彼此相互作用時,必然出現的結果。
    二、隨著下崗與失業的併軌,「下崗」終將成為歷史名詞,問題雖然在表面上是消失了,但只是仍然隱藏在廣大的失業群體之中,並沒有完全地解決。
    三、國有企業下崗職工成為新的城鎮弱勢群體,過去所擁有的優越地位與福利,在國企改革的過程中皆失去了,對於職工的心理上並無法適應其巨大的變化,並使得再就業的難度增加。
    四、由於收入分配不均、貧富差距日漸拉大,而勞動爭議與人數上升、群體抗爭事件與參與人數增多;國企職工透過上訪、信訪或是上街與企業領導或各地政府抗爭,這已經危及社會的穩定發展與和諧。
    五、對於國企下崗職工的經濟補償與完善社會保障乃是中共的施政要務,但要加強政策的落實,並藉由社會保障制度的保障,把其不滿的情緒壓抑到最低。
    六、國企下崗問題所形成的社會問題,雖不足以形成推翻中共政權的主要動力,卻可對中共構成政治上的威脅,對於中國大陸的社會來說,這是一個構成社會變遷的力量之一,如果社會上的其他力量能夠整合起來對中共政權進行對抗,也不能小看其對中國大陸未來的走向所發揮的作用。
    Since Deng Xiao-Ping succeeded political power in 1978, China had enforced “Reform and Open-up” policies. The concept of capitalistic economy was introduced to China that caused its economic growth rate to increase on average of higher than ten percent over the past twenty years. Under this awesome economic growth, China government carried on the innovation of economic system, from central-planned economy system to socialism market economy system. But unavoidably, the changes led the original system to a vast crash. Many state-owned firms abiding by the direction of the government continued to innovate to meet the need of the new economic system.

    However, the market efficient economic system influenced the operation of the state-owned firms on the process of socialism market economic system. The traditional management of state-owned firms also faced the challenges of the innovation and the transition so as to compete with foreign enterprises and non-state firms. Hence, the innovation of state-owned firms gave rise to numbers of laid-off workers and brought about many unstable social phenomenon in China.

    In our research, several conclusions could be made in the following:
    1. The unemployment of the laid-off workers resulted from the following three factors: the interior population structure, the transition of economic system and the innovation of state-owned firms.
    2. As derivative Chinese word “unemployment” appeared and “laid-off” became oblivion, “the laid-off problems” seemed to be solved, but actually these were still concealed behind enormous unemployment, and had not been cleared up.
    3. During the innovation these laid-off workers from state-owned firms became new inferior minorities in cities, whose superior position and welfare (while they worked in the state firms) had been lost. Once they could not find their feet, the chance of returning to work would be harder.
    4. Workers in state-owned firms made a stand against the higher authority or Governments by meeting, writing or going into the streets due to uneven distribution of income, which hindered the social development.
    5. The urgent policy for laid-off workers was to carry out economic compensation and social protection so that unsatisfied voice could be repressed to minimum.
    6. Although “the laid-off problems” could not overthrow the Communist regime, it was likely to become a menace in politics. While it combined with other forces against the Communist regime, it would cause a great impact on the future of China.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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