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    Title: 中俄戰略協作夥伴關係的形成與發展
    Other Titles: The formation and development : Sino-Russian partnership of strategic coordination
    Authors: 尤臺蓉;Yu, Tai-jung
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 戰略夥伴關係;Partnership of strategic coordination
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:22:55 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 中俄關係交往已有三百多年的歷史,兩國關係基本上是侵略與被侵略的關係;從1949年中共建政之初對蘇聯的關係採取「一邊倒」政策到五○年代末期,中蘇因意識形態的分歧,導致兩國關係發生變化。1963年中蘇關係全面破裂至1969年珍寶島事件,七○年代末蘇聯更在中國邊界部署百萬兵力,並透過支援越南對高棉用兵及武力入侵阿富汗,讓中共深感在地緣政治上形成鉗行包圍,至此,中蘇關係嚴重惡化。冷戰結束、蘇聯解體,中俄關係產生巨大變化。冷戰後國際體系呈現美國一超獨強與其他大國多強並存格局,而經濟全球化及區域經濟一體化趨勢加速發展,「經濟掛帥」的對外政策,成為冷戰後左右國家關係的重要因素。
    中、俄兩國自1992年「互相視為友好國家」,1994年建立「面向21世紀的建設性夥伴關係」,1996年更提升至「戰略協作夥伴關係」,2001年簽訂「中俄睦鄰友好合作條約」,到2005年8月份聯合軍事演習更使兩國發展關係達到最高峰。首先,促使中俄兩國戰略匯集的主要原因是為了突破美國所主導的「北約東擴」,對俄國的地緣壓縮與在東方的「美日安保」對中國的圍堵策略;其次,為能全面發展經濟,改善週邊國家關係,營造有利的內外環境,有助於中、俄各自經濟利益;此外,在國際合作領域中共同支持建立國際新秩序、世界多極化發展,除使雙方能在多極化格局中有更大發展空間,同時亦可相互聲援,打消美國氣焰,並能提高雙方各自在國際聲望與區域影響力。
    中、俄兩國戰略協作夥伴關係的發展過程在各個領域上的合作逐漸擴展,無論在政治互動、經濟往來、軍事合作、解決邊界問題及文化教育交流上均呈現穩定發展,尤以雙方在軍事合作領域有逐漸加溫趨勢,對於穩定區域平衡與台海安全造成影響,但在歷史、經貿、邊界移民與軍售等侷限因素,影響兩國關係發展。「九一一」事件發生後,美國需要中俄在國際反恐議題上支持,但美國借反恐將勢力進入中亞地區,損及中俄在中亞地區影響力與戰略利益,更促使中俄相互依恃以遏制美國在中亞勢力,從2005年8月份的中俄「和平使命--2005」聯合軍演,即是針對美國而為。
    鑒於中俄各自戰略的考量,「美國因素」對中俄戰略協作夥伴關係發展形成決定性影響,美國期對中、對俄外交主動權以牽制中俄雙方,而中俄兩國則相互協作以改變對美國關係被動性。未來中俄將仍透過戰略協作夥伴關係的持續發展以滿足各自國家利益,然而是否會更深化彼此關係甚或結盟有待後續研究探討。
    The relationship between Russia and China has been going on in the last three hundred odd years. Basically it was built on 「invading」 and 「being invaded」. Since 1949 when Communist China government established, it adopted a「land slide」policy for Russia . At the end of `50s, their relationship became deteriorated, owing to the disparity in ideology. In 1963, their relationship was completely broken, and in 1969 happened the「Gin-Bow Island Incident」. At the end of `70s Russia deployed a million of strong army near the Chinese border, supported Vietnam to invade Cambodia and attacked Afghanistan by force. These measures by Russia had tightened the screws on China, leading to the complete break-up of their relationship. With the ending of the Cold War and the disintegration of Soviet Republics, the Sino-Russia relationship began to shed some light. After the Cold War, America became the sole super country along with several strong countries. With the speeding development of global economy and the unification of district and economy, 「Priority on Economy」had become a very important factor in deciding the relationship between countries.
    Since 1992, Russia and China look on each other as 「Mutually Friend Countries」;in 1994, established 「21 Century Constructive Partner」; in 1996, scaled up to 「Strategic Cooperation Partner」; in 2001,signed 「Mutually Cooperation Friend Treaty」. The August, 2005 united military exercise made their relationship reach to the plateau. The leading cause to the strategic unification was aiming to break the area compression of 「NATO」, led by America, in the west; and to fight the containing strategy of 「America-Japan Security Protection Treaty」in the east. Secondly, Russia and China wanted to fully develop their economic; to improve relationship with neighboring countries; to facilitate their individual economy benefits. Moreover, by cooperation, they wanted to establish new order in the world, and to develop multi-polarization so as to have more room for development. Furthermore, they wanted to reinforce each other in warding off America bullying, and to elevate their international prestige and district influence.
    The development of strategic friend partnership, between Russia and China, is expanding steadily, no matter in political inter-reaction, business dealings, military cooperation, frontier problem solving, and culture and education exchange, and especially in the area of military cooperation. This has influenced on district balance and on the security between Taiwan Strait. But it still has limits. In order to beat 「Three Evil Forces」Russia, China and five countries in mid-Asia established「Shanghai Cooperation Organization」, in 2001, to give them more room for cooperation on the security and district economy . After「911 Incidents」,America needs the support of Russia and China to fight terrorism. However, America uses antiterrorism as an excuse for ushering its influence into mid-Asia, damaging Russia and China influence and strategic benefits in this region. This forces Russia and China to further their cooperation, so they can curb the influence of America. The「Peace
    For Mission-2005」, a military exercise, was really staged for this purpose.
    Considering the strategic of Russia and China, 「American Factor」will decide the subsequent development of the Sino-Russia relationship. America hopes that it can limit Russia and China, while Russia and China hope to overcome their passiveness by cooperation. In the future, Russia and China will still keep on cooperating as strategic partner and pursue their individual benefits. Whether they will deepen their partnership, or even make further alliance with each other, remains to be observed.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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