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    Title: 冷戰後中共與日本安全關係中的台灣因素
    Other Titles: The Taiwan factor in Sino-Japanese security relationship in Post-Cold War Era
    Authors: 賴奕佑;Lai, Yi-yu
    Contributors: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士班
    趙春山;Chao, Chun-shan
    Keywords: 冷戰;台灣因素;「一個中國」原則;台海危機;美日安保協商;軍事說服力;Post-Cold War;Taiwan Factor;One China;Taiwan Strait Crisis;Security Consultative Committee;Military Persuasion
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:22:35 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 冷戰時期結束後,中共與日本的安全關係開始產生變化。一方是正在崛起中的中共,一方是希望國家政治地位能夠提高的日本,而這兩個相鄰的國家,在雙方接觸的過程中,所面臨的一個現象。其中台灣因素是中共與日本發展雙邊關係的重心所在。中國大陸學者的觀念中,日本對台灣的野心並沒有隨著日本結束對台灣的統治而結束,而且認為在相關台灣事務方面,明顯干涉台灣事務的是美國人,但真正寢食難安的是日本人。與此同時,日本雖然一方面宣稱堅持「一個中國」的原則,但一方面又希望台海維持現狀,日本顯然希望能藉此在與中共進行談判時能,能將國家利益最大化。

    國家在增加自身的力量時,特別是軍事力量,就會引起相關國家的不安,其中的一方都會將自身提升軍事力量解釋為防禦,而將另一方提升力量解釋為可能的威脅。中共與日本在相互互動中,為了謀求自身相對的優勢,或是消弱對方相對的力量,而進行各自的戰略活動,結果雙方將焦點共同的放在台灣上。今日的台灣位置處在一個極具戰略價值的地理位置,也就使得台灣對亞太安全的影響變的更加複雜。

    冷戰結束後,中共與日本基於地緣和能源的爭議,使得彼此間的衝突隱約再現,而此種相互威脅和緊張的關係在1996年的台海危機後更為明顯。在這次中共對台灣海峽的導彈試射使日本朝野終於認知到,發生在台灣海峽的衝突事件,任何的發展是會影響日本自身的安全。日本在此次台海危機中體會到台灣海峽的危機就等同於日本的危機,使得日本更加重視與美國的安全關係需要再次的強化。2005年二月的「二加二」美日安保協商後所發表的聯合聲明中,日本就改變以往的態度,與美國一致將台海列為共同戰略目標。

    日本希望能夠藉由與美國共同關注台灣海峽的局勢安全,以及提升自身國家的軍事力量等手段,其目的並不是因為決心與中共對抗,或是有發動軍事戰爭的意願。而是希望藉由這樣的外交手段,達到提昇日本「軍事說服力」(military persuasion)的目的。面對未來東亞的局勢,短期來看,日本利用與美國同盟的力量來牽制中共的局面不致於變動,與美國的結盟,以及主張台海和平、兩岸維持現狀仍然是日本最大的利益考量。

    其次以長期來看,日本會走向正常的政治大國,而中共也將成為比現在更具影響力的國家。雖然目前中共與日本在目前的安全關係上有許多爭議而走向緊張關係,但這只是一時的現象,是為了測試對方的底線與彈性空間的策略,之後,中共與日本將會形成不只是經濟上,也同時包括在政治上、安全上的緊密合作關係。尤其是東亞區域經濟的整合趨勢,更是會加快這一個過程的轉變。
    After Post-Cold War Era, Sino-Japanese Security Relationship has been changing. In the process of contact with each other between the two neighboring nations, of which one is the rising Mainland China and the other is the Japan engaging to promote its political status, the Taiwan Factor is the focus for the development of bilateral relations of Sino-Japanese Relationship. The scholars in Mainland China think that the ambitions of Japan to Taiwan didn’t come to an end with the end of Japanese rule of Taiwan and that Americans are those who overtly interfere in Taiwan affairs, while those who make Mainland China uneasy even when eating and sleeping are Japanese. Meanwhile, Japan declares the principle of "One China" on one hand, and also suggest Taiwan Strait maintain the status quo on the other hand. By maintaining the stances, Japan hopes to maximize national benefits in the process of negotiation with Mainland China.

    When a country enhances its own power, especially its military power, the associated countries will feel ill at ease. The one which enhances its own power will interpret its action as a defense; while the other one will interpret it as a probable threatening. In the interaction between Mainland China and Japan, they take their strategies of war and they both focus upon Taiwan for the purposes of attaining the relative superiority to the other or weakening the other’s power. Nowadays, Taiwan situates on a geographical location of great strategic value, which makes Taiwan have more complicated influences upon the security of Asia-Pacific region.

    After Post-Cold War Era, the dispute of territory and energy between Mainland China and Japan makes the conflicts between each other reemerge. The tensions and threatening relationship became more apparent after the Taiwan Strait Crisis in 1996. The trial of missile shooting of Mainland China to the Taiwan Strait made both government and public in Japan recognize that any progress of the conflict in the Taiwan Strait has an impact on its own security. In the Taiwan Strait Crisis, Japan realized that the crisis of the Taiwan Strait is equal to Japan’s crisis. Japan emphasized that the secure relationship between Japan and U.S.A. needed to be intensified further. In the joint statement of U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee (SCC) in February, 2005, Japan changed its attitude used to be and collaborated with U.S.A. to put the Taiwan Strait as a common strategic objective.

    Neither for the purpose of determination to defy Mainland China, nor inclination to start military war, Japan collaborates with U.S.A. to give common concerns for the security of the Taiwan Strait and enhance its military power for achieving the goal of military persuasion. In face of future perspectives of East Asia, in view of a short term period, it will remain unchanged for Japan to diverse Mainland China through the alliance with U.S.A. The best benefits for Japan are still the alliance with U.S.A., the claim for the peace of the Taiwan Strait, and the maintenance for the status quo across strait.

    In view of a long term period, Japan will turn into a nation with leading political power and Mainland China will also be more influential than today. Though there are so many debates in current security relationship as to lead to a great tension between each other, which is a transient phenomenon, the debates are in order to test the baselines of each other and the strategies of resilience. Afterward, Mainland China and Japan will fall into the relationship with close collaborations not only in economics, but also in politics and security. The trends for integration of regional economics in East Asia will specially fasten the transition of this process.
    Appears in Collections:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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