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    題名: 中國大陸物權法對臺灣民眾在大陸購置不動產的影響及其因應
    其他題名: A research of mainland China reality of laws to Taiwan populace in mainland behavior and influence
    作者: 汪小龍;Wang, Siao-long
    貢獻者: 淡江大學中國大陸研究所碩士在職專班
    潘錫堂;Pan, His-tang;龔春生;Gong, Chun-sheng
    關鍵詞: 中國大陸;物權法;不動產;Mainland China;Reality of laws;Real estate
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:21:44 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 中國大陸在「物權法」草案提出前,翻遍中國大陸的法律條文完全沒有物權這二個字,當然中國大陸以社會主義的義識型態來治理國家,且更以極權統治的方式來管理人民,所以對人民來說也沒有所謂私有財產的問題,改革開放以來人民對經濟上的渴望以及不安全感,而致中國大陸第十屆全國人大第五次會議於2007年3月16日,終於通過《中華人民共和國「物權法」》,並已於2007年10月1日起施行。
    「物權法」草案自1993年起草時起,在中國大陸各界對它就一直有許多不同的意見,如北大教授鞏獻田即宣稱,「物權法」草案的基本原則違背了中國大陸的憲法,「草案廢除了憲法和民法通則中調整財產關係的最核心條款社會主義的公共財產神聖不可侵犯,實質上妄圖用私有財產神聖不可侵犯''的精神和原則取而代之,背離了社會主義方向」。
    雖然中華人民共和國憲法修正案已由中華人民共和國第十屆全國人民代表大會第二次會議於2004年3月14日通過修正案,主要就是將人民財產私有的權利列入憲法層次。而其中第十三條原文是國家保護公民的合法的收入、儲蓄、房屋和其他合法財產的所有權。而修正後的第十三條是公民的合法的私有財產不受侵犯。國家依照法律規定保護公民的私有財產權和繼承權。
    而2007年三月份中國大陸第十屆全國人大第五次會議舉行期間,卻依然有三十六位離休高官,包括許多副部級的離休人士,上書胡錦濤、吳邦國、賈慶林,申稱「堅決反對私有化」。這股反改革勢力正在蓄勢待發,其規模之大,前所未有。
    而這股反改革的力量對未來物權法保障人民私有財產的安全是否會發生牽制的效果而且除了意識形態上的反對外還有哪些社會上的反對因素?這也都是本文所研究的重點。
    而對我們從台灣到大陸投資置產的民眾所受到的影響,本文的研究將著重在以中國大陸「物權法」對台灣民眾所產生之影響,及其因應為主,再搭以中國大陸一般社會對「物權法」的期待,而台灣民眾入境問法,將而如何借助「物權法」的規定來爭取權利與保障呢?
    中國大陸「物權法」自立法完成至今其配套措施仍然尚未完備,而許多重要實施單位仍然付之闕如,例如統一的登記規則,以及統一的登記機關,而其他技術需配合的規定或單位也不完備如測量法規,以及統一的施測機構。台灣民眾將如何應付眼前紊亂的法規以及所有的不確定?
    本文將對中國大陸物權法中的條文與台灣民眾長期觀念做出比較,並透過不同的解讀找出台灣民眾最大需求,並依照中國大陸「物權法」的規定為台灣民眾提出能有效保障財產爭取權益的建議。
    Before the draft of Real Right Law, legal provisions had never mentioned right in rem anyhow in Mainland China. China’s government not only governed the country by socialist ideology, but also managed people by totalitarian rules, so to people there was no problem about so-called private properties. However, since the reform and opening up, people’s increasing economic desire and insecurity led government adopted Real Right Law of the People s Republic of China at the 5th session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on March 16th, 2007 and put into practice on October 1st, 2007.
    Since the drafting of Real Right Law in 1993, there have been a number of different views from all walks of life in Mainland China. As Professor Gong Xiantian at Peking University said, the basic principles of the draft of Real Right Law violate China’s Constitution. “The draft abolishes socialist concept that public property is sacred and inviolable, the core provision of adjustment of property relations in the Constitution and the General Principles of Civil Law. In essence, it attempts to replace the original one by the spirit and principles that private property is sacred and inviolable, which strays from the direction of socialism.”
    The amendment to the Constitution of People’s Republic of China has been adopted at the 2nd session of the Tenth National People’s Congress on March 14, 2004. The main purpose was to include the right of private property in the constitutional level. Article XIII of the original text is that the state protects the right of citizens to own lawfully earnings, savings, houses and other lawful property. After amendment Article XIII is modified as “The lawful private property of citizens may not be encroached upon” and “The state protects by law the right of citizens to own private property and the right to inherit private property.”
    However, during the 5th session of China’s Tenth NPC in March 2007, there were still 36 retired high-ranking officials, including many retired vice-ministerial level people, protesting to Hu Jintao, Wu Bangguo, and Jia Qinglin strongly against property privatization. This anti-reform force is poised to take off and the scale is unprecedented.
    Will this anti-reform force impede the Real Right Law to protect people’s private property in the future? Is there any other opposed factor besides ideological opposition? These issues also are focus of this study.
    About the effect to us Taiwanese who attempt to invest real estate in mainland, this study would focus on the influence of Real Right Law of the People s Republic of China to Taiwanese people and the solution. In addition, this study would discuss Chinese people’s expectation toward the Real Right Law, and the ways to win the rights and protection with the help of Real Right Law when Taiwanese people enter China.
    The necessary measures of Real Right Law of the People’s Republic of China have not yet been completed, and many of the important implementation units are still missing, such as the unified register rules and register office. Other requirements and organizations which need technical cooperation are yet comprehensive neither, for instance, the measurement regulations, as well as a unified testing agency. How would Taiwanese people cope with the immediate disorder of regulations and all the uncertainty?
    This study would compare the Real Right Law of the People’s Republic of China with long-term notions of Taiwanese people, and find out the largest needs of Taiwanese people by a variety of explanations, at the same time in accordance with the Real Right Law, provide Taiwanese people suggestions to effectively protect property rights.
    顯示於類別:[中國大陸研究所] 學位論文

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