本論文以芥川龍之介的兒童文學作品為研究對象，旨在探討其童話世界之特色。主要研究步驟為，首先分析各童話作品的內容構造以及故事角色之特徵，接著探討其共通與差異之處。最後，檢討作品中出現的二元對立要素以及人性試煉之全貌。本論文共計六章，各章之要旨如下所述。 序論部分，將說明本論文撰寫之動機、先行研究、研究內容以及方法。 第一章「作品內容之結構」中，首先分析各童話作品的故事大綱，研究其故事內容發展以及背景空間之構造，並探討與數字<三>有關之要素，以及回歸原點等特性。 第二章「小說人物之樣貌」，解析各作品中登場角色的行動以及其意義，並探討人物的慾望與上位階級等特徵。 第三章「二元對立之構圖」，考究作品中出現的相對概念，探討上與下、善與惡、現實與虛構等二元對立之要素。 第四章「試煉鋪陳之內容」，以故事主軸<試煉>為中心，剖析作品中所刻劃的試煉全貌。 結論部分，歸納各章節所探討之重點，藉此窺探芥川龍之介筆下童話世界之全貌，以及故事背後所蘊含的作者思維。 This thesis was aimed to investigate the features of Ryunosuke Akutagawa''s literatures for children. In order to found out the common features and differences between texts, firstly, the structural context and the characteristics of the main characters within each story was been identified under detailed analysis. Following the above steps, research then was carried out by examinations through binary opposition theory and trials that appeared within the text. This thesis was consists of six chapters. The introduction chapter includes the research motive, antecedent research, research content, and analytical methods applied. Chapter 1: The summary and the main character movements of each story were been analyzed. This chapter will be focused on the investigation of the structural pattern and imaginative dimension of each story, and clarified features that include the element related to the number “Three” and the reinstatement of the preliminary point. Chapter 2: The main points of chapter two was to examine the characteristics of characters according to each story, which revealed the vital desires of human being and on the other hand, the symbol and existence of the upper class. Chapter 3: The substance of this chapter was to investigate each story texts according to the theory of binary oppositions, which mainly focused on oppositions such as upper class and lower class, good and evil, reality and imagination. Chapter 4: In this chapter, the context and aspects of trials assigned to the main characters according to each tale were being analyzed. Lastly, the main points of each chapter appeared in conclusion as further summed up statements, and the general portrait of Akutagawa''s fairy tale world can be viewed into a much more detailed arrangement.