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    Title: 沙特哲學中的自由問題
    Other Titles: Problems of liberty in Sartre's philosophy
    Authors: 郭立芬;Kuo, Li-fen
    Contributors: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    林春明;Lin, Chun-ming
    Keywords: 沙特;自由;意識;存在;自欺;時間性;介入;liberty;being;bad faith;temporality;Sartre;liberte;conscience;etre;mauvaise foi;temporalite;engagement
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:19:05 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 沙特在一九四三年出版的哲學著作《存在與虛無》中,討論人的存在和世界之間的問題。他認為人之所以存在,正是由於人是自由的,而人的自由從「意識的虛無」表現出來。意識對存在提出疑問、然後否定,隨之而來的虛無告訴人們:人擁有自由,甚至人就是這個自由。接著,因為缺乏方向,「焦慮」產生了—焦慮不知該如何是好。在沒有勇氣迎向自由的情形下,多數人選擇「自欺」;而勇於面對的人,他們就會選擇、計畫,然後行動。此外,人的自由化是在時間流逝的過程中完成的。
    以上是沙特哲學中「自由」的要義。而且他將這些哲學概念符融入其他形式的作品,包括小說、劇本,以及評論文章等。例如貫穿中篇小說《噁心》中的是「偶然性」概念,這是沙特存在思想的起點;或另外三卷本的長篇小說《自由之路》,書中的人物們隨著時間的演進,以不同的態度和方式面對自由,最後都達到不同的結果。
    本論文從《存在與虛無》出發,共分四個章節:第一章意識對存在的體驗,描述「意識」和「存在」的關係,引出「自由」的起源;第二章自由的意義則進一步分析行動、選擇和處境。前兩章並以上述兩部小說的主角羅岡丹和馬蒂厄為例來討論。第三章時間性和存在描述三種時間性:原始的(現象學的)、心理的和世界的,說明人如何為原始的時間性,在心理和世界的時間中又是如何存在;最後,在第四章自由衍生的問題,要透過沙特的時代和生平經歷,談論他的自由思想在當時的影響,以及後來受到其他新的思想(如結構主義和後結構主義)衝擊的原因。
    In 《Being and Nothingness》 (1943), Sartre discusses the problems between the human being and the world. He believes that human being is liberty who is based on "nothingness of conscience". To another existence, the conscience interrogates and then negates. After that, the nothingness tells us: people have liberty, even they are liberty. Following that, due to lack of courage, "anxiety" comes – people feel anxious because they don’t know how to do. Thus, as most people dare not confront their liberty, they take an attitude of "bad faith". And others who dare face the liberty can choose, plan and act. In addition, people liberalize with the efflux of time.
    All above is the essence of Sartre’s "liberty" and he also transferred the philosophic concepts into other forms, including novels, dramas and commentaries. For example, "contingency" in 《Nausea》 is the origin of his philosophy; or in 《The Road to Freedom》 (I & II: 1945; III: 1949), the characters face their liberty, with the passing of time, in varied ways and attitudes. Finally, all they have different results.
    The thesis starts from 《Being and Nothingness》 and contains four chapters: in chapter 1, we describe the relation between "conscience" and "existence" to find out the origin of "liberty"; in chapter 2, we analyze "action", "choosing" and "situations". Besides, we also introduce Roquentin and Madieu, the characters in those two above-mentioned novels, in chapter 1-2. In chapter 3, three kinds of "temporalities" - original (phenomenal), mental and universal – are observed for explaining how human beings, as an elemental temporality, exist respectively in mental and universal temporalities; eventually, in chapter 4, we try to comment, through Sartre’s life, the influences of his philosophy over the 20th century and why it was impacted later by other school of thoughts that came later (like structuralism and post-structuralism).
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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