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    Title: Une imagination limitée de la colonie dans l'Exposition coloniale en 1931 : Le pavillon de l'Indochine
    Other Titles: 1931年萬國殖民博覽會:一種對殖民地的有限想像,以印度支那館為例
    The limits of the colonial imaginary: a case study of the Indochina pavilion at the exposition coloniale internationale, 1931, Paris
    Authors: 林士鈞;Lin, Shih-chun
    Contributors: 淡江大學法國語文學系碩士班
    蘇哲安;Solomon, Jon D.
    Keywords: 人類形狀;階級;殖民想像;景觀;Human form;Class;Colonial imaginary;spectacle;la forme humaine;la classe;imagination coloniale;le spectacle
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:18:56 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 在一九三一年,宏偉的複製吳哥窟及「現代化」的摩洛哥出現於巴黎的萬國博覽會,這不只象徵著殖民博覽會達到最高峰,更重要的是法國「承襲」及「復甦」了古老的殖民地文化。然而這是一個相當奇怪的概念,因為在1867年,博覽會首次「再現」的「黑色民族」代表著一種絕對的「落後」,而法國更不可能是其繼承者。這黑色民族在當時而言,只不過又是另ㄧ種展示國力及牟利的手段而已。至此我們可以發覺到「民族」這概念其實是「浮動」的,它會隨著階級或者時間而改變。
    對於民族與階級之間的概念,我們可以回朔到法國大革命及現代「民族國家」的產生。而在殖民擴張中,「民族」逐漸變成種族。這猶如監牢的人類形狀變成了人的本質,在殖民行動中它提供了合法性。而在兩戰之間所舉辦的萬國博覽會,法國當局者面對著德、意兩國的崛起及第三國際的出現,在如此複雜的政治關係下,不斷的調整對殖民地的態度,最終出現了如上述的奇怪概念。所謂對殖民地民族的了解不過也只是依照著自己的階級利益而定。而人文科學更是確認了「民族」的無上地位,人似乎從出生開始就無法逃離成為某個民族的命運。因此基本的問題可能並不在於要尊重某個民族,因為這正是「他者」的誕生。人該不該擁有某種「人類的形狀」,似乎才是真正要思索的問題。
    而且博覽會也是一種「景觀」,在此景觀中,物再也不是物,它變成了一種符號,在1851年,「進步」取代「物」,在1867年,黑色民族確認白色民族的「優越」。景觀建構或限制著觀賞者的認知,而這與國家權力有著密不可分的關係,一種被限制的想像合法化了侵略行動。
    In 1931, the grandiose copy of Angkor Vat and modern Marco are installed in the Exposition coloniale internationale de Paris, which symbols undoubtedly the culmination of the colonial exposition. What’s more important, the French at that time inherit and revive the ancient culture of the colony. However, that remains quite a strange concept. The “black nation” represented in the Exposition in 1867 is absolutely “inferior” to the “white nation”. In that case, it is by no means that the French become their inheritor. The “black nation” represented is just another way to display the colonial power and to gain commercial benefits. In fact, we can easily find out that the concept of “nation” is actually “floating”. It will change with the time or the class.
    As to the relationship between the nation and the class, we can trace its history back to the French revolution and the appearance of the modern “state-nation”. In the expansion of the colony, the “nation” becomes the “race” . This kind of human form legitimatize the colonial expansion. The Exposition in 1931 is held between the two Wars. French government faces this complicated situation, they adjust incessantly their attitude towards their colony. The interpretation of the colony depends entirely on their benefits. Moreover, the “nation” is confirmed again by the human science. It seems that a human being can’t avoid becoming a “nation” when he or she was born. Hence, the basic problem is probably not to respect “another” nation. Should people have a human form? That is the problem we should think about.
    And the Exposition is also a kind of “spectacle”. The object exhibited is no more a substance, but a “signification”. A limited imagination legitimatize the whole invasive action.
    Appears in Collections:[法國語文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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