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    Title: A spiritual ecology in the lankavatara sutra
    Other Titles: 《楞伽經》精神生態學之研究
    Authors: 吳素真;Wu, Su-chen
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    楊銘塗;Yang, Ming-tu
    Keywords: 精神生態學;阿賴耶識;如來藏識;深層生態學;心理生態學;spiritual ecology;dependent co-arising;Consciousness-only school;Alayavijana;Tathagata-garbha;Buddha nature;Self-realization;Deep Ecology;ecopsychology;relative truth;ultimate truth;vasana;five skandhas;unborn;Noble Wisdom;paravritti;anthropocentrism;holistic world-view;intrinsic value;ecological consciousness.
    Date: 2009
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:18:08 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 若要以長期而深遠的應對生態破壞的議題,需要回歸到個人世界觀等精神層面去轉換,所要牽動的改變,絕非僅止於社會運動或律法的規範。精神生態學的研究,主要在結合人類的精神層面與生態原理原則,來面對生態永續發展的課題,其研究範疇,主要架構在宗教、精神面、與自然環境的交互相關性。
    本人論文將特別聚焦在佛教經文來探究生態課題。研究的主軸,將定位在以唯心論聞名,訴諸萬法為心造的大乘佛教經典《楞伽經》,來探究人類心識的作用與生態相存互依的緊密關聯性。我在《楞伽經》的研究,推證第八識--阿賴耶識(亦稱為如來藏識),提供生態相依互存性理論架構的核心基礎。在本部經文中,阿賴耶識本為清淨,若為無明的「塵」事所覆蔽,現出染污的「識境」,因而遠離其清淨本體的「智境」。也因此,在本經中,人類心識作用的程度差別,區隔出證悟前後的「識境」與「智境」。在此二境中,所體現出的是佛法中所闡揚的概念,即眾生轉識成智的證悟之道。藉由阿賴耶識的染淨本質,《楞伽經》架構出因業果報的輪迴觀,深入又清明的呈現出佛教因緣相續性的通論。藉由對人類心識作用的研究,了解法界萬物的因緣相續性,有助於體悟個體與自然世界共存中的生態相依性。
    現代西方的「深層生態學」與「心理生態學」的生態哲學與生態心理相關研究的領域,依循整全式(holistic)的世界觀,強調宇宙萬事萬物中的共存相依的生態論述觀點。本論文深入探討《楞伽經》中所闡述的宗教性義理,諸如:染污的阿賴耶識所造成的識境、如來藏識的法身本體觀、萬物與生俱來的佛性概念以及轉識成智的終極修行教義,如何相應於現代西方的「深層生態學」與「心理生態學」所提倡的生態論點,諸如反人類中心論本主義 (anthropocentrism),訴諸心、身、自然為一體的整全式世界觀、相信自然萬物的內在性價值 (intrinsic value)以及強調生態意識(ecological consciousness) 發展對生態議題的重要性。《楞伽經》以其宗教性的教義, 提出一個倫理架構,提供給當代生態的危機課題,一個值得省思的視野與處理的空間。探究《楞伽經》精神層面所蘊含的生態智慧,加深我們了解,人類所有的起心動念,對於其所依存的大自然環境,都有其關鍵性的影響力。
    Over the long term, the fight against ecological destruction must involve transformations at the personal as well as spiritual level, and be motivated by more than mere social movements and political and legislative decisions. The concept of “Spiritual Ecology” is a blend of spirituality and the principles of ecology and sustainable living. It highlights the relationships between spirituality, religions and environments in order to address environmental issues.
    In my dissertation, I will focus specifically on Buddhist world-views with regard to facing ecological issues. The purpose of my study is to investigate the ecological interdependence of human consciousness, especially as presented in the Lankavatara Sutra, which is famous for its doctrine of the primacy of consciousness, meaning that all phenomenal existence is fabricated by consciousness. My studies show that Alayavijnana and Tathagata-garbha concepts in this sutra provide one of the most significant bases for the understanding of ecological interdependence. In this sutra, Alayavijnana is conceived as inherently "pure," even though it is covered by impurities. The principle of dependent co-arising underlies the relationship between the “pure” and “defiled” with respect to the Alayavijnana. In the Lankavatara Sutra, this intense focus on human consciousness stresses two levels of truth: the world of relative truth and the realm of ultimate truth, through which this differentiation between ignorance and enlightenment is expressed. Within the realms of two truths, the Buddha provides the rationale for and a description of the Buddhist path by which individual consciousness is transformed into perfect wisdom.
    Deep Ecology and Ecopsychology, two modern ecological movements that began in the West in the 1960s, also call for a new relationship between humans and nature in ecological disciplines. With holistic world-views, both theories have many similarities in terms of their emphasis on the importance of human consciousnesses and their relationship to natural world. The goal of my study is to investigate how the ecological interdependence of human consciousness, as presented in the Lankavatara Sutra with its doctrines of the defiled Alayavijnana, the cosmic body of Tathagata-garbha, Buddha Nature and transforming consciousness into wisdom, are echoed by the ecological principles of Deep Ecology and Ecopsychology with their ecological arguments against anthropocentrism, in favor of a holistic world-view and the interrelatedness between human consciousness and the natural world, and their views on intrinsic value and ecological consciousness. I hope to offer a new and fresh perspective on the self, human consciousness, and the interrelatedness of human beings’ relationships with the natural world. Retrieving the ecological wisdom of the Lankavatara Sutra can offer human beings a new paradigm for dealing with contemporary ecological issues.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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