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    Title: André Gorz's political ecology: negotiating a rapprochement between socialism and ecology
    Other Titles: 安德烈.高茲的政治生態學:尋求社會主義與生態的協商
    Authors: 楊炎肇;Yang, Yan-jaw
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    黃逸民;Huang, I-min;邱彥彬;Chiou, Yen-bin
    Keywords: 物質交換;生態社會主義;生態理性;經濟理性;ecological crisis;materialism;material exchange;man's reliance upon nature;means of subsistance instrumental rationality;industrial capitalism;domination of nature;science and technology;enlightenment;ecosocialism;economic rationality;ecological rationality;sphere of autonomy;sphere of heteronmy
    Date: 2008
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:17:48 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文旨在以安德烈.高茲的生態社會主義與馬克思主義觀點,來檢視生態危機的形成原因。當代綠色政治和主流綠色理論的弱點在於對生態問題反應上的足。本論文第一章探討馬克思和恩格斯著作中唯物論、勞動過程、以及物質交換理論的觀點,企圖對人與自然相互依存的概念作更深入的哲學性理解。此外,本文亦挪用馬克思唯物的社會經濟理論,來駁斥當代綠色理論謬誤的邏輯。意即,任何生態論述若不觸及社會經濟層面則為虛構無效的論述。因為充滿神秘性、萬物有靈、浪漫色彩的綠色理論忽視了當今資本主義社會邏輯,也就是以利潤為主的生產模式和誇耀的資本主義消費模式才是真正加速環境破壞的元兇。科學技術的發展隱含著生產力的提升,同時也大幅地帶動人類征服自然的能力。第二章以法蘭克福學派為出發點,討論生態危機的形成乃歸咎於啟蒙運動所帶動之資本主義社會先進科學技術。本文探討以盧卡奇的物化觀念(reification)以及受其深遠影響之法蘭克福學派主要成員霍克海默與阿多諾著作中,對於啟蒙運動的宰制理論的觀點加以批判。意即,宰制自然的觀念是生態危機的根源。運用科技理性來宰制自然必定造成對人類自身的宰制。最後,本論文檢視對當代法國生態思潮最具影響力的存在主義/ 馬克思主義理論家安德烈.高茲的生態社會主義,以駁斥當代綠色理論謬誤的邏輯。因為充滿浪漫色彩的綠色理論忽視了當今全球化之下的資本社會所造就的區域間權力衡、爭奪消耗性資源、忽略自然承載能力,才是真正加速環境破壞的元兇。高茲的生態社會主義目標在於,擴張人的自主性活動的領域,增加自我實現之可能性。透過「更少地生產,更好地生活」,生態社會主義的生產模式,才是生態環境永續發展的基礎。
    Any green assertion, which does not account for the capitalism’s profit-orientation and productivism, undermines its theoretical base pertaining to environmental devastation. The first chapter analyzes the key concepts of Marxism—man as a natural being, the metabolic man-nature dichotomy, and the anthropocentric consideration—all contribute to the thorough and better understanding of the bilateral influence between man and nature. By virtue of a specific analysis of the authentic discourses pertaining to ecological concerns by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, this essay aims at arguing for a critical reappropriation of Marx’s socio-economic/materialist contention to denigrate the spurious advocacy of the green theorists. A Marxist materialist anthropocentric view of nature is disdainful of the contemporary green theories. The ecocentric greens, with their romantic cult of nature, disregard the fact that the current mode of production and consumption, based on the capitalist logic of unlimited profit accumulation and ostentatious consumption, is the putative factor precipitating the catastrophic ecological crisis. Next, inspired by the idea of “reification” introduced by Georg Lukács, who sees a materializing inclination of a capitalist society, Max Horkheimer, Theodor and Adorno, based on Marx’s critique of productivism, conceptualize their trenchant excoriation of the reified society. The final chapter argues for an alternative socialist account of man-nature dichotomy, namely, ecosocialism, in pursuit of an ecologically sustainable development. Ecosocialism, which is based on the French existentialist/socialist André Gorz’s political assertion, repudiates the techno-scientific rationality of capitalism, for its precipitation of the mastery over nature and the impact on social relations. Rather than advocating the techno-scientific progress which reversely results in man’s inability to control it, ecosocialism’s primary concerns rely on the notion of a society which venerates the quality of life, based around the concept of “ecological rationality,” which advocates “less but better.”
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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