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    Title: Woman, city, and psychoanalysis : voicing Virginia Woolf's visual turn
    Other Titles: 女人.城市.精神分析 : 維吉妮亞.吳爾芙的視覺轉述
    Authors: 談玉儀;Tan, Yuh-yi
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    海柏;Haseltine, Patricia;楊銘塗;Yang, Ming-tu
    Keywords: 克萊恩;克麗斯蒂娃;巴特勒;佛洛依德;波特;高貴絲;戴爾卓;死亡驅力;女性戀物;系譜;性別扮相;同性戀;憂鬱;現代主義;幻想;凝視政治;母性精神;陰陽同體;客體關係;宮籟;賤斥;《達洛威夫人》;《奧蘭朵》;《時時刻刻》;abjection;androgyny;Daldry;death drive;female fetishism;Freud;Genealogy;gender performativity;Gorris;Homosexuality;Klein;maternality;Melancholy;Modernism;Mrs. Dalloway;object-relations;Orlando;phantasy;politics of gaze;Potter;semiotic chora;The Hours;visuality
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:17:10 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 二十世紀英國現代小說家維吉妮亞.吳爾芙擅於運用意識流的書寫技巧,細膩且微妙地刻劃筆下人物心理癥候,突破以往以情節為主要敘事結構的寫實小說風格,開創現代主義小說的書寫特色。在其知名著作《達洛威夫人》及《奧蘭朵》中,以「陰性書寫」方式深刻描述置身於陽剛社會中女性的內心世界及母性精神,堪稱現代女性主義先驅。九十年代,電影蛻變為另類藝術傳媒,此時適值「後女性主義」時期,在緬懷女性主義巨擘之際亦興起以影像重現吳爾芙的原著小說 ,藉影像與聲音呈現文字敘述的另一面向,將讀者轉換成觀眾,賦予吳爾芙原著嶄新的視覺魅力,一反嚴肅的男女平權論述,展現嬉戲嘲諷的後現代性別論述。這「視覺轉述」不僅開拓文字表述的層次,也促進了吳爾芙式文學與藝術之間良性互動的辨證美學。
    本論文以吳爾芙的小說《達洛威夫人》、《奧蘭朵》和對照原著改編的電影,及戴爾卓的電影《時時刻刻》為探討文本,進行跨藝術互文的研究及解讀。在方法論上則結合佛洛依德及拉康的精神分析、克萊恩及其門徒克麗斯蒂娃的女性精神論點、巴特勒的性別展演研究、及後現代女性視覺解構主義等,希冀建立吳爾芙式「母性」文學與視覺對話的美學。克萊恩客體關係理論闡明個人與母親的關係係人類生命本質的原動力及人際關係的起始點,這一新耳目的論點帶動了一場精神分析的革命。雖然她「母性精神分析」的論點,與佛洛伊德以「父系」取向的精神分析有所區別,但此差異並非一種對立或否定的決裂,而是補充和擴展佛洛伊德「父系」精神分析所未觸及的女性觀點。她同時認為藝術的起源並非源於人類本能的昇華,而是來自於個人與母親關係修復的力量。克萊恩提出的母性精神領域除拓展藝術與文學批評的空間外,並重新審視吳爾芙小說及影像互文的「母性空間」。
    這母性觀點的發現之旅由英國導演莎莉.波特改編吳爾芙的小說《奧蘭朵》展開序曲。劇中自十六世紀末伊麗莎白王朝起跨越到二十世紀的現代時空,描寫奧蘭朵性別轉換的生命歷程,探討兩性面臨的生命危/轉機。波特在其影像世界中以反諷的寓言手法突顯《奧蘭朵》的性別議題,顛覆寫實主義的表述,並藉由忽男忽女的奧蘭朵,顛覆性別的既有模式;另在跨越性別界線之際也展現陰陽同體的特質。波特透過影像剖析女性主體的觀看位置及窺視機制,逆轉以男性觀者為主體位置的傳統論述。此外,藉由影像中性別界線與觀看位置的交錯游移,波特呼應吳爾芙文本中陰陽同體的書寫特質,並以後現代巴特勒式的「性別扮相」導引出女性「凝視」的主控權。
    荷蘭女導演高貴絲的《達洛威夫人》則以當代的同性戀觀點呈現出吳爾芙書中似有若無的女性戀物情結。並置現在與過去的倒敘手法及畫龍點睛的旁白,貼切地將吳爾芙意識流的文字書寫特質,巧妙地由視覺影像轉述。達洛威夫人的戀物情結源起於不可名狀「如子宮般」的玄牝空間,克麗斯蒂娃稱之為「宮籟」,乃是一種充斥著曖昧、混沌、無以言說、神漾與狂喜的「陰性空間」,這是母親與胎兒共享的空間。筆者借用「宮籟」的概念,來探索達洛威夫人的戀物癖,凸顯陰性「他/她者」的潛意識層面,鬆動陽性象徵界所標榜的理性、穩定、與邏輯的世界。
    戴爾卓執導的《時時刻刻》以嘲擬的後現代手法與吳爾芙《達洛威夫人》對談,刻劃處於不同時空的三個女人的內心世界。三個女人、三段故事藉《達洛威夫人》相連結;作者吳爾芙夫人、讀者布朗夫人及小說中的達洛威夫人生命中的某一時刻終能跨越時空緊密相連,編織出女性系譜的脈絡。媲美佛洛依德的伊底帕斯情結,克萊恩提出游移於「偏執分裂心智狀態」與「憂鬱心智狀態」的母性幻想,使自我脫離與母親的共生關係,重塑主體的自主性。《時時刻刻》中的女人在克萊恩式的母性幻想空間中形成自我的分裂機制,分裂的自我產生好/惡的客體,衍生兩極化的反應:一端是理想化的母親,另一端則是醜詆的母親形象。只有當主體逐漸瞭解自己內心中他/她者的存在,才能從兩極化的母親陰影中破繭而出,修補內在客體/母親的情感。因此縱然分處不同城市與年代的三位女性仍能跨越時空藩籬,共同分享《達洛威夫人》所傳達的母性精神。
    Virginia Woolf, a foremother of Modernist literature, has meticulously described the female desire and profound ambivalence about the body’s potential for maternality in her writings. Among them, Mrs. Dalloway offers a visionary alternative to construe a possible Kleinian matricentric world to replace Freudian paternal genealogies. Orlando fleshes out a renewed definition of femininity whose gendered performative gaze in this way reveals the melancholy otherness of the intrusive narrator with a repressed inner self attempting to go beyond gender restrictions. Conceptualizing Woolf’s maternal aura also exposes her aesthetics of visual modernism. The study, thus, presents a comprehensive reading through the prisms of Kleinian and Freudian psychoanalytic debates about the primacy of maternality and paternality in the course of constructing subjectivity by reading the intertextual dialogism of Woolf’s literary texts Mrs. Dalloway and Orlando and their adapted cinematic versions directed by Marleen Gorris and Sally Potter along with Stephen Daldry’s The Hours, a postmodernist re-interpretation of Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. The interdisciplinary study of the verbal and visual representation has contributed to an alternative reading to perceive Woolf’s sense of imaginary motherhood well established in her self-representational writing and the adapted films. Furthermore, centering on Woolf’s rhetoric of m/other fundamentally expands the understanding of maternality and contingent construction of femininity with psychoanalytic feminist approaches, namely Melanie Klein’s object-relations, Julia Kristeva’s semiotic chora, and Judith Butler’s gender performativity. In Woolf’s visual world, the genealogical project of psychological mothering provided by Klein, Kristeva, and Butler differentiates their pre-oedipal focused theories on motherhood from other dominant oedipal focused notions.
    Examining Woolf’s film-fiction affinities in terms with the leading female protagonists’s psychological probing, the dissertation is divided into sections that all detail the collusion of maternality and visuality and their fluid nature which disturbs the boundaries of framing of the maternal body. The introduction first traces a Woolf study over the past three decades, then, focuses on a research of Woolf’s visual turn, and concludes with an analysis of her psychiatric history and its relationship with her writings. Chapter I explores the female fetishism in Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway and Gorris’s same name film version by challenging Freudian penis-envy and tracing the reconstruction of a mother-child dyad in the pre-oedipal phase. Both the novel and the film encourage the formation of female subjectivity and facilitate a new kind of development to make reparation with the lost mother. The exploration of Clarissa’s fetishistic symbols such as flowers, hats, gloves, dresses, cars, parties, and London streets is crucial to retain the mental illustration of female subjectivity interweaving a liminal maternal space on the borders that resonates with cognitive mapping of a fragmented self torn by the war and the patriarchal society in the 1920s London. Chapter II proffers a postmodernist elucidation of Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway with Daldry’s film The Hours based on Michael Cunningham’s novel of the same name. Applying Klein’s object-relations and phantasies puts forward a constructive analysis of the subject of female genealogy intertwined among Mrs. Woolf, a writer of Mrs. Dalloway in the 1923 Richmond, Mrs. Brown, a reader in the 1951 L. A., and Mrs. Dalloway, a fictional character in the 2001 New York. Daldry’s The Hours consents to an alternative postmodernist question about three aspects of a writer, reader, and fictional character whose underpinning parody comes from Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway. Chapter III renders the connection between Woolf’s Orlando and Potter’s film in terms of the “gaze” within the context of psychoanalytic parameters of Lacan, Freud, Klein, and Butler along with the feminist film theory to discern the issue of female spectatorship. Most importantly, Butler’s gender performativity constituting a playful maternal space of gazing proves worthwhile to shape Orlando’s composite selves and their relationship with the cultural and social circumstances that lay waste to the possibility of female voyeurism. Last but not least, the conclusion presents a discussion on how the maternal body is comparatively and contrastively presented in Woolf’s literary and cinematic texts; an intertextual continuity between these two media is achievable with a productive accomplishment. Realizing Woolf’s admiration for visuality encoded within psychological imagery and its connotations has shed new light on a cognitive mapping of psychic transformation manifested through lost memories that demonstrate the gendered consciousness of Modernist women.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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