|摘要: ||本論文以沙林傑《麥田捕手》這部小說中的主角豪頓‧考菲爾德為例子，採用拉岡及紀傑克精神分析理論探討其存在困境。這位孤單、遠離人群、思想複雜的十七歲豪頓對於所處之社會以及身邊的人感到沮喪與抗拒，經歷無法與社會和諧相處之窘境。伴隨著歇斯底里的人格特質，豪頓不斷維護自己在大對體(the big Other)中所佔有的位置；除此以外，其病態的疏離導致自身陷入虛構想像層面，幻想一個和諧、無紛爭的社會。本論文著重於豪頓在紐約市探險、流浪三天的心境，包括對自我與對社會的抗拒，並且探討其歇斯底里之性格、異化(alienation)、幻見，以及豪頓最終是否超越幻界。|
本論文分成三章。第一章闡述豪頓與大對體之間的疏離和其語言跟主體性消失之間的關係，也檢視其歇斯底里之性格。第二章分析其異化和幻見。身處在象徵秩序中，異化是個必要的選擇(forced choice)也是主體建構的根本條件，豪頓必定要經過此過程。本章也提及豪頓幻想一個和諧寧靜的社會，他把社會的敵對歸咎於騙子、偽善者的存在，但是此想像只會讓豪頓更加無法認清社會內部的真實面；因此，第三章按照紀傑克延伸拉崗精神分析的理論架構來探討，唯有豪頓超越幻界，他才能體認社會內部已存在的敵對本質、去除「他人」是導致社會衝突之因的想法、認同自己也是社會的一部分，並且接受大對體的匱乏(the lack in the Other)。
Applying Lacan’s and Žižek’s Psychoanalysis, this study analyzes Holden Caulfield’s existential conundrum on the basis of the discussion of the novel, J. D. Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye. Holden—the isolated, sophisticated and the seventeen-year-old narrator who is frequently dissatisfied with, and who feels lonely over the people/society around him—encounters the predicament of resisting the integration with the society. His pathological alienation traps him in his imagination, and results in fantasizing a utopian, complete, and organic society. This essay discusses Holden’s emotional stance in the three-day expedition in New York City, including his self-isolation and resistance with the society, his hysteric character, alienation in the signifiers, fantasy, and finally whether or not he traverses the fantasy.
This thesis is divided into three chapters. Chapter One elaborates Holden’s pathological isolation with the Other (society) and disappearance of subjectivity (his death wish) relating to his language. Also, in light of Lacan’s theoretical frameworks, this chapter elucidates his characters as a hysteric. Chapter Two analyzes Holden’s alienation and fantasy. Struggling in the Symbolic, he must go through the forced choice, Lacan’s conceptualization of alienation, which is a vital constitutive feature of the subject. In addition, he ascribes all the faults to the underclass, such as phonies and crooks, and fantasizes a society without antagonism and conflicts. His fantasy obfuscates the imminent divisions in the society. Therefore, judged from Žižekian psychoanalytic theories, Chapter Three points out that only when Holden traverses the fantasy can he recognize the always-already antagonism in the society, identify with his symptom, and acknowledge the nonexistence of the Other.
In summary, Holden’s existential conundrum is not an impasse; rather, there is a way out for Holden: traversing the fantasy. This study discusses his psychological mechanism and pathological fantasy in the Lacan’s and Žižek’s theoretical frameworks, and provides an essential solution of traversing the fantasy for Holden to confront his existential struggles.