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    题名: Individuation in J. R. R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings : towards a post-jungian reading
    其它题名: 陶懇《魔戒》中的後榮格個體化過程
    作者: 彭家慶;Peng, Chia-ching
    贡献者: 淡江大學英文學系碩士班
    郭秋雄
    关键词: 陶懇;托爾金(別譯);個體化;榮格;榮格心理分析;後榮格;現代;後現代;自我意識;集體潛意識;自性;原型;J. R. R. Tolkien;Individuation;C. G. Jung;Jungian Psychoanalysis;Post-Jungian;Modern;Postmodern;Ego Consciousness;Collective Unconsciousness;Self;Archetypes
    日期: 2005
    上传时间: 2010-01-10 23:14:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文一共分成四個章節,其內容分別如下。在第一章裡,筆者將先介紹心理學家榮格的個體化理論、潛意識原型的概念以及其在個體化過程中的重要性。接著筆者將簡短回顧過去曾經使用榮格心裡分析方法來探討陶懇《魔戒》的重要研究作品。在本章結尾,筆者試圖點出過去榮格心裡分析中以英雄神話原型為理論基礎的優勢與不足之處。在第二章,筆者將進一步說明將《魔戒》中的英雄角色比擬為自我意識,並不足以詮釋《魔戒》複雜龐大而深刻的哲學觀。從佛洛伊德強調自我意識為人類心靈中心,到後榮格學者們強調以多元觀點重新評估人性,此一演變過程,相當類似現代主義式單一觀點至後現代多元觀點的轉變。然而,在本章中筆者並不是以非我即他的二元思維定義現代與後現代宇宙觀。藉由綜合唐姆及布萊恩等陶懇學者的觀察,筆者認為《魔戒》中曖昧的善與惡的道德掙扎,以及榮格的個體化過程所強調的意識與潛意識的謀和過程,十分符合了人性面對現代主義與後現代主義思維交錯時所造成的心理矛盾。在第三章及第四章中,筆者相當肯定榮格的個體化理論探討《魔戒》的實用性。但在另一方面,筆者強調個體化過程不只是文本中主要角色的特有經驗,而是中土世界眾多族群和個體的集體經驗。這些經驗或許因不同種族、不同性別和不同年齡而有程度上的差異,但是就後榮格學者或後現代主義的角度而言,中土世界的和平並非來自參與者無止盡膨脹自我意識以及非黑及白的善惡二元對立,而是來自於個體間主觀意識互相謀和與協調的結果。
    This thesis draws on C. G. Jung’s theory of “individuation” to explore its possible application to a reading of J. R. R. Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings (henceforward LOTR). Through the discussion of the four chapters of the thesis I hope to offer a context to examine the usefulness of the Jungian idea of individuation in the study of the psychoanalytic dimension of LOTR. My observations are three fold. First, while many critics have noted that individuation is a prominent psychoanalytic motif in LOTR, past studies are inadequate in that they tend to apply the Jungian concept to the analysis of the main characters, the “heroes,” and specifically Frodo, Aragorn, and Gandalf of the Middle-earth mythology. Second, I maintain that both the Jungian concept and Tolkien’s mythology allows every individual to be a hero/heroine each and together functioning in a closely and sometimes mysteriously connected world. Every person’s individuation is a hero’s/heroine’s individuation. What’s more, these personal individuations impact one another and, taken together, they impact on the collective individuation of their shared community. Finally, on the theoretical front, I maintain that this attention towards the psychoanalytic significance of not only the central but also the marginal characters in a literary work and this attempt to see not just one personal psychic transformation but also the collective psychic transformation of a community are the common concerns of postmodern Jungians and literary critics. This in turn opens up the possibility to discuss postmodernity in both Jungian psychoanalytical theories and LOTR.
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