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    題名: Apocalypse and salvation in Leslie Marmon Silko's Ceremony : the wisdom of native Americans
    其他題名: 萊絲莉.瑪門.席爾柯《儀式》中的末世預言與拯救 : 美國原住民的智慧
    作者: 楊琇羽;Yang, Hsiu-yu
    貢獻者: 淡江大學英文學系碩士班
    黃逸民;Huang, I-min
    關鍵詞: 美國原住民;啓示預言;生態危機;環境種族歧視;在地性;傳統保存;互惠性;說書;口述傳統;拯救;Native Americans;the Laguna Pueblo;apocalypticism;environmental crisis;environmental racism;locality;tradition maintenance;altruistic reciprocity;storytelling;oral narrative;salvation
    日期: 2006
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:14:09 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本論文是一趟從危機預示到拯救的旅程,旅程的一開始是以傳統基督教及席爾柯小說《儀式》中Laguna Pueblo民族的世界觀做對照,從而尋找該民族口述傳統故事裏極具啓示性的見解。首章,從創世紀,蜂鳥與蠅,及破壞者的故事當中,來搜尋發生在這個弱勢族群上的危機為何。在此章,巫師競賽的想像情境中全面毀滅的預言在主角Tayo看到鈾礦場時得到實踐,此內心的衝擊帶領Tayo與充滿智慧的口述傳統緊密結合。而Tayo的這項發現反映了他的民族正遭遇什麼樣的挑戰:資本主義社會及西方價值的入侵、生態毀滅、還是有更深沈的問題?

    第二章我帶入Appadurai的『在地性』理論,來強調傳統文化的維持端賴三個重要的元素:在地主體、在地儀式、及社羣地。從這個觀點來看,我發展出以下對維繫少數民族在地性之理論:即同一社區中擁有共同信念的族人能有著緊密聯繫。將此理論帶入末章對Pueblo信仰的探討,吾人發現該族的傳統價值——互惠性及責任二者為我人類及弱勢族群之拯救之道。

    第三章討論到小說中的魔性力量,吾人認為此具毀滅性的力量不僅存在於白人中,亦存在於Pueblo族人自身身上。在此章首,吾人點出美國政府善於操弄政治語彙以合理化其對弱勢族群及其它地區的人民不公義之做為,而此不公義的行徑早自數百年前歐裔美人所組成的聯邦政府對美國原住民居住區域的剝削巧取就已存在,如今美政府延續相似的態度來主導國際關係,進而引發其他政體及民族對其不滿及後續的報復、衝突、以及殺戮。此外,人性的自負亦為加速全面性毀滅的因子,如同Laguna Pueblo口述故事裏巫師競賽的情境;然而此駭人之想像已漸漸被實現,那人類該如何從全面性毀滅獲得拯救?

    救贖之道,在於社群共同努力實踐傳統精神價值——互惠及和諧——才得以為永續生存找到出路。除此之外,面對新的時代及新的挑戰,弱勢族群及人類亦需發展出新的技術及思考來為文化及環境的延續創造更多機會,如同Pueblo的治療師Betonie為因應社會型態的改變,而對其治療族人的方式做更貼近現實的修正。末章,吾人從Betonie的行為、與Tayo的對話、及其思維中研析發展出拯救之道,即全體人類需認知到文化及環境的維繫端賴責任的共同承擔;不忽視及逃避資本主義及全球化的現實,永遠於面對挑戰之餘不忘遵循傳統精神價值。
    This thesis is a sort of journey from apocalyptic vision of crisis to salvation. At the outset of the journey is the introduction of the juxtaposition of the concept of salvation, or the worldview, between traditional Christianity and Laguna Pueblo’s oral narratives in the context of Lelie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony. Then I start to search for the apocalyptic vision of the crisis revealed by the Pueblo’s story-poems in this novel. In Chapter One, imaginary scenario of total destruction in witchery contest culminates in Tayo’s discovery of uranium mining in Laguna land, a “monstrous design” of death and destruction, which firmly connects him to this imagination and proves the vision inside their story. What does this discovery reflect their challenge: the coming of a capitalistic society, Western values, ecocide, or something larger?
    Chapter Two presents Appadurai’s theory of locality whose maintenance depends greatly on three critical elements: local subjects, rituals, and neighborhood. From this context, I have the following interpretation: a strong social bond among the tribespeople sharing with the same beliefs in the same community. Bringing the concepts from Chapter Four, I suggest that Pueblo’s belief is based on Thought Woman’s admonition, in which the concept of reciprocity and responsibility is pervasive in Betonie’s narrative.
    Chapter Three discusses the witchery power, which resides not only in the whites but also in the Pueblos themselves. In this chapter, we see how the U.S. government manipulates the rhetoric in an attempt to convince peoples of their values, and these errors are still prevailing among today’s human and international relations. Increasing disillusionment out of distrust, and injustice could trigger more conflicts and hostility, bringing more turmoil and killings to human race. Besides, fallacy of human pride or egoism would accelerate the process of total destruction, to ecology as well as to all species. This imaginary scenario has been presented to readers in a fearful realization that these witchery powers are affecting this real world already. Apocalyptic vision is proved. So what is our redemption?
    Salvation requires communal efforts to practice Thought Woman’s teaching of reciprocity and harmony. In addition to the ethical correction as a solution for our survival, we also need to develop the new approaches to meet the new challenges in this modern age. Throughout the whole novel, Betonie is not only Tayo’s mentor but also the messenger as Hummingbird to show a way of our salvation, and, survival. The medicine he gives to us is—taking responsibility, in the efforts of cultural preservation and reproduction, seeing the global reality but remembering out identity, and renewing the traditional methods but still keeping that traditional spirit.
    顯示於類別:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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