|Abstract: ||本論文是一趟從危機預示到拯救的旅程，旅程的一開始是以傳統基督教及席爾柯小說《儀式》中Laguna Pueblo民族的世界觀做對照，從而尋找該民族口述傳統故事裏極具啓示性的見解。首章，從創世紀，蜂鳥與蠅，及破壞者的故事當中，來搜尋發生在這個弱勢族群上的危機為何。在此章，巫師競賽的想像情境中全面毀滅的預言在主角Tayo看到鈾礦場時得到實踐，此內心的衝擊帶領Tayo與充滿智慧的口述傳統緊密結合。而Tayo的這項發現反映了他的民族正遭遇什麼樣的挑戰：資本主義社會及西方價值的入侵、生態毀滅、還是有更深沈的問題？
This thesis is a sort of journey from apocalyptic vision of crisis to salvation. At the outset of the journey is the introduction of the juxtaposition of the concept of salvation, or the worldview, between traditional Christianity and Laguna Pueblo’s oral narratives in the context of Lelie Marmon Silko’s Ceremony. Then I start to search for the apocalyptic vision of the crisis revealed by the Pueblo’s story-poems in this novel. In Chapter One, imaginary scenario of total destruction in witchery contest culminates in Tayo’s discovery of uranium mining in Laguna land, a “monstrous design” of death and destruction, which firmly connects him to this imagination and proves the vision inside their story. What does this discovery reflect their challenge: the coming of a capitalistic society, Western values, ecocide, or something larger?
Chapter Two presents Appadurai’s theory of locality whose maintenance depends greatly on three critical elements: local subjects, rituals, and neighborhood. From this context, I have the following interpretation: a strong social bond among the tribespeople sharing with the same beliefs in the same community. Bringing the concepts from Chapter Four, I suggest that Pueblo’s belief is based on Thought Woman’s admonition, in which the concept of reciprocity and responsibility is pervasive in Betonie’s narrative.
Chapter Three discusses the witchery power, which resides not only in the whites but also in the Pueblos themselves. In this chapter, we see how the U.S. government manipulates the rhetoric in an attempt to convince peoples of their values, and these errors are still prevailing among today’s human and international relations. Increasing disillusionment out of distrust, and injustice could trigger more conflicts and hostility, bringing more turmoil and killings to human race. Besides, fallacy of human pride or egoism would accelerate the process of total destruction, to ecology as well as to all species. This imaginary scenario has been presented to readers in a fearful realization that these witchery powers are affecting this real world already. Apocalyptic vision is proved. So what is our redemption?
Salvation requires communal efforts to practice Thought Woman’s teaching of reciprocity and harmony. In addition to the ethical correction as a solution for our survival, we also need to develop the new approaches to meet the new challenges in this modern age. Throughout the whole novel, Betonie is not only Tayo’s mentor but also the messenger as Hummingbird to show a way of our salvation, and, survival. The medicine he gives to us is—taking responsibility, in the efforts of cultural preservation and reproduction, seeing the global reality but remembering out identity, and renewing the traditional methods but still keeping that traditional spirit.