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    Title: The skillful debaters in the canterbury tales
    Other Titles: 坎特伯利城故事集之辯論高手
    Authors: 黃素馨;Huang, Jasmine Su-sing
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系碩士班
    莫蘭德;Boland, Margaret
    Keywords: 詭辯術;辯論術;類比辯論法;三段論證法;省略推理法;例證;sophistry;Oratory;Rhetoric;analogism;syllogism;enthymeme;exemplum
    Date: 2005
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:14:06 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 長久以來,英國中古世紀作家喬叟,在文學史上是備受推崇的偉大詩人。喬叟在其重要代表作品《坎特伯利城故事集》中將他對韻律詩使用的才能發揮的淋漓盡致。然而,在許多評論家給予喬叟詩人最高評價的同時,卻少有評論家提及喬叟在《坎特伯利城故事集》中對辯論術的卓越貢獻。因此,本論文以希臘著名哲學家柏拉圖、亞里斯多德及羅馬辯論家西塞羅、昆提良所提出之辯論術定義來審視《坎特伯利城故事集》中的四篇故事,包括《巴斯夫人的故事開場白》《梅利比的故事》《商人的故事》《女修道院教士的故事》及其四位主角:巴斯夫人、審慎夫人、朱斯廷納斯及公雞香堤克利爾的辯論技巧,探討這些角色如何在《坎特伯利城故事集》運用他們的論證技能,針對婚姻、忠告和夢的預言等議題提出精闢的見解,說服別人贊同他們的想法。故事集中的精彩辯論技巧,驗證了喬叟為英國中古世紀偉大辯論家,及其作品《坎特伯利城故事集》為學習西方辯論術之容易理解又有趣的入門選擇。
    本文主要分成七章:第一章介紹辯論術的定義、重要性及辯論技巧,例如:類比辯論法、三段論證法、省略推理法和例證。第二章探討古典辯論家柏拉圖、亞里斯多德、西塞羅及昆提良對喬叟辯證思維的深遠影響。第三章將巴斯夫人視為詭辯家,探究她經驗豐富的婚姻及御夫哲學。第四章著重於喬叟心中理想的辯論家審慎夫人,檢視審慎夫人如何透過理性的推理、耐心的解釋舉證,成功地平撫她丈夫急於報仇雪恨的情緒並說服他原諒敵人。第五章探討辯論高手朱斯廷納斯因缺乏合宜的態度又遇上了冥頑不靈的聽眾傑紐亞利,最後反被激怒而錯失機會,無法說服對方。第六章以得意忘形的公雞香堤克利爾為例,分析一個辯論高手在運用辯論技巧說服愛人夢的預言不可被等閒視之的同時,卻因迷戀愛人的美貌而失去理性,隨意推翻自己的論點,將不祥的預兆拋在腦後。之後,更因聽信狐狸的讒言,而讓自己陷入危機中。第七章為總結。
    透過深入探討《坎特伯利城故事集》中的精彩辯論技巧,驗證喬叟對西方辯論術的偉大貢獻。他技巧性地引導讀者分析詭辯家與辯論家的差異並指出成功辯論術的致勝關鍵因素。藉由探究喬叟對修辭文學的貢獻, 希望喚起更多人重視辯證思維的深遠影響,並且引薦不熟悉辯論術的讀者們進入辯論術的精彩語言體系。
    Many critics place Geoffrey Chaucer as ‘the father of English poetry.’ Chaucer is especially known for his excellence in meter and rhythm. In The Canterbury Tales, one of the most renowned works in the fourteenth century, Chaucer shows both his poetic and storytelling skills. When Chaucer’s talent for poetry is highly noticed, his great contribution to the rhetoric and oratory, however, is unknown to the public. Therefore, this research demonstrates how certain characters, the wife of Bathe, Prudence, Justinus and Chauntecleer in The Canterbury Tales use their clear, precise and unbiased statements and give reasons for or against much of the subject matter, such as marriage, revenge, advice and dream vision with the aim of persuading other people. Four stories, The Wife of Bathe’s Prologue, The Tale of Melibee, The Merchant’s Tale and The Nun’s Priest’s Tale in The Canterbury Tales are relevant to the topic. This study of debate in The Canterbury Tales is based on Plato’s Sophist, Aristotle’s Rhetoric, Cicero’s De oratore, and Quintilian’s Institutio oratoria.
    In Chapter One, this thesis provides a clear definition of debate and presents its historical importance. Other rhetorical devices, such as analogism, syllogism, enthymeme, and exemplum, are also presented as they relate to debate. Chapter Two focuses on the importance of Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, and Quintilian to Chaucer. Chapter Three discusses the Wife of Bathe’s rich experience and unparalleled philosophy of marriage which appear to be all her own but which is, in fact, based on sophistry. Chapter Four examines Prudence, the representative of ideal orator that Chaucer has in mind, and her strategies in reasoning. The exemplary debater supports her views with reasons and facts and presents her ideas in natural order and finally succeeds in persuading others to follow her. Chapter Five presents Justinus, a learned debater who fails to convince his audience to change their minds, because his manner of speech is either awkward or unyielding. Chapter Six investigates how Chauntecleer, the proud cock, convinces his beloved wife, Pertelote, of the importance of dream visions, but ignores the prediction and foolishly trusts a sly fox’s blarney and falls into the trap. Chapter Seven is conclusion.
    Taking Chaucer’s four stories in the tales as examples, this thesis introduces an interesting access to the study of rhetoric that the contemporary readers may not otherwise find easy to approach. This study is designed specifically for all who are interested in rational thinking and in using rhetorical devices to achieve victory in debate. Through a series of dialogues among the skillful debaters in the tales, Chaucer presents the difference between sophistry and oratory. In addition, he points out the key factors of a successful debate. Chaucer’s great techniques of debate that lie within the rhetorical tradition are proved to be crucial to oratory. His contribution in The Canterbury Tales shows Geoffrey Chaucer as a remarkable orator and the tales as a splendid collection of debates.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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