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    Title: Euripides' songs of nether darkness : "truth," disunion, and madness in Medea and Hippolytus
    Other Titles: 尤里庇狄思劇本中的陰騭悲歌 : 《米蒂亞》與《希帕里特斯》的「真相」、分裂架構與瘋癲
    Authors: 吳瑜雲;Wu, Yu-yun
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    黃逸民;Huang, I-min
    Keywords: 尤里庇狄思;米蒂亞;希帕里特斯;悲劇;分裂架構;瘋癲;黑格爾;傅柯;Euripides;Medea;Hippolytus;tragedy;parrhesia;disunion;madness;Hegel;Foucault
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:13:27 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 本論文嘗試探討古希臘劇作家尤里庇狄思所呈現的真相與虛假之模稜性、本體分裂架構及瘋癲主旨。討論中指出《米蒂亞》與《希帕里特斯》巧妙的融合古希臘說真話的實踐,衝突的分裂架構,和男權社會中女性的的反抗與瘋癲,在在充斥於情節,主題,與角色描寫中。
    傅柯分析parrhesia為傳達無所畏懼地說真話活動,展現坦率、真理、批評、義務、冒險之五大意涵。並藉由討論古希臘政治或個人說真話的觀點與實踐,檢視此字於《米蒂亞》和《希帕里特斯》作品中之運用,以清楚揭示說真話與隱藏真話在兩作品中的並置,進而分析真相及虛假之模稜兩可。
    此外,運用黑格爾之悲劇觀點與古希臘性別規範,我將說明尤里庇狄思式悲劇建立了明顯的結構傾向:悲劇角色從序曲開始即堅持於「摯愛執著」的領域(「黑暗本性」)來抗衡令自己痛苦的異己,且主角與對手之間絕無考慮妥協的餘地。如同米蒂亞與傑森或菲黛拉與希帕里特斯的各自執著本性,形成不相容之對立與敵意之抗衡。
    另藉由黑格爾之瘋癲理論,本文證明異常的悲劇角色陷入兩個真實世界(內在與外在世界之對立),且異常的自我經歷了分裂的雙重個性。因此「雙重雙重性」被呈現:分裂的雙重個性伴隨著分裂的雙重世界。此外,根據偏見的性別意識型態(積習的二元論成規),本論文指出在劇本中呈現男性主導社會中女性的微小地位、負面特質、受難和絕望的意識,強烈激發米蒂亞和菲黛拉拼命的反抗文化規範並施展極度的瘋癲策略。此手段既為抗議,更為心靈復原療法,藉以擺脫精神創痛,繼而昭顯尊嚴與自我定位的追尋。
    文末指出,尤里庇狄思的經典悲劇精湛地傳唱出女性生存所面臨的對立衝突,更反映出其陰騭瘋癲,在在詳盡地揭露女性的追求尊嚴對抗,以求生存與光榮之永恆意義。
    This dissertation attempts to assert that Euripides poses as a poet to represent the topics of uncertainty, conflict, and madness. Here my study is to illustrate that Euripidean Medea and Hippolytus underscore a mostly intricate rendezvous of the Greek practice of parrhesia, the disturbing disunion on various potential possibilities, and the abiding occurrence of the female resistance and madness in a pallogocentric community as demonstrated in the plot development, central themes, and character portrayal.
    Foucault manifests parrhesia as the verbal activity of truth-speaking with the five major qualities of frankness, truth, criticism, obligation, and risk-taking. By discussing the concept and practice of the Greek notion of parrhesia, political or personal, I intend to investigate the word’s use in Hippolytus and Medea to shed new light on revealing the ambivalence of truth-telling and truth-hiding as well as the ambiguity of truth and falsehood in these two plays.
    In addition, by applying Hegelian concept of tragedy and the predominantly Greek gender protocols, I would demonstrate that Euripidean tragedy establishes the structure’s penchant: the tragic characters cling to the dominion of their fixed “pathos” (“the feeling soul”) from the outset in the confrontation of the painful Others, and entertain no absolute accommodation between the protagonist and the antagonist. Clearly, the obsessive natures of Medea and Jason or Phaedra and Hippolytus are formulated in irreconcilable opposition and hostile conforntations.
    Besides, by virtue of the Hegelian theory of madness, I would declare that the tragic heroine in madness is trapped between two centers of reality (the discord between the inner and outer worlds), and that the mad self disrupts herself to experience a double personality. Thus, we’ll see “a double doubleness”: a divided personality that compliments a divided world. Furthermore, in light of the polarized ideology of gender (the system of dualism), I argue that female public invisibility, negativity, suffering, and the Gestalt of despair in a definitively male-oriented world precipitate Medea’s and Phaedra’s desperate resistance against the cultural norms and their exerting the stratagem of passionate madness; it is a gesture of both protest and a healing recovery from the wounds and agonies of the spirit to articulate their demands for esteem and self-identity.
    The concluding part of this study suggests that Euripides has been both remote and contemporary. His eternal songs splendidly explore the radical disunion and darkening madness of female existence, which are elaborated with a timeless relevance of glorious struggle for survival and triumph.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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