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    Title: The return of the Chora : the heterogeneous sense of self in Virginia Woolf's novels
    Other Titles: “宮籟”的回返 : 維吉尼亞 • 吳爾芙小說中的異質主體
    Authors: 張台瓊;Chang, Tai-chiung
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系博士班
    蔡淑玲;Tsai, Shu-ling
    Keywords: 吳爾芙;克莉絲蒂娃;宮籟;Virginia Woolf;Julia Kristeva;stream-of-consciousness vs. psychoanalysis;modernism vs. modernity;the problematic of language;writing, genotexts;materiality of language;signifying process;material enunciation;heterogeneous sense of self;poetic language;the semiotic chora;the abject;abjection of self;the metaphorical association;counterdepressant
    Date: 2006
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:13:19 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 維吉尼亞.吳爾芙 (Virginia Woolf, 1882-1941) 被視為英美現代文學裡意識流小說的主要作家。本論文檢驗吳爾芙小說中「詩歌的要素」(poetic elements)或「語言的現代性」(the modernity of language),企圖將其由現代主義「完整的主體性」(the unified subjectivity) 這樣的固有意涵暫時詮釋為「現代性」 (modernity) 邏輯裡的流動的「異質主體」(the heterogeneous sense of subject)。 精確點說,本論文借用法國思潮裡現代性的討論, 如1950年代雅各布森 (Roman Jakobson) 的隱喻 (metaphor) 理論,1970年代的羅蘭巴特 (Roland Barthes) 與克莉絲蒂娃 (Julia Kristeva) 的符號學及心理分析理論等,重探吳爾芙最重要的三部意識流小說。本論文旨在探究吳爾芙作品中「真(或謂作者意圖)與小說書寫」[the real (or writers’ intention) and fiction writing] 之間的「美學空間」(aesthetic space),以提供吳學對話裡一個新的切入角度。換句話說,本論文探問吳爾芙作品中「語言的物質性」(the materiality of language),「母性的發言」(the maternal enunciation),「隱喻的語言」(the metaphorical language) 等心理語言學概念是如何使吳爾芙指出言語所不可說之物的存在 (如吳爾芙作品中討論到的“空虛感”或活死人的“虛無感”)。這樣的探求不同於寫實主義所持如上帝的創作者(the Author God)或意識流評論所謂可以被表達的完整的主體,它使吳爾芙的小說主體暗含著一種曖昧的異質性。
    本論文分為五個部份,序言與結語外有三個主要章節。 第一章借用克莉絲蒂娃「詩歌語言」(poetic language)的理論檢驗《達洛威夫人》中宮籟回返的「徵候」(the symptoms of the returned semiotic chora)。異於一般意識流評論對吳爾芙作品的解讀—公共的倫敦景象或事件「呼應」著人物對景物的私感受—本章則著重在吳爾芙倫敦書寫中所指向的,因受到無以言表的「宮籟」侵擾而產生的反覆分裂與重建的現象作探討。作品中,人物意識活動過程裡,無以名狀的「宮籟」在無可逆料的瞬間閃現,擾亂象徵秩序的穩定性,吳爾芙的倫敦書寫也就變成克莉絲蒂娃所謂的「基因文本」 (genotexts)。
    繼第一章的討論:以「詩歌的語言」說明吳爾芙小說中人物對公共的倫敦景象(或事件)與其私感受之間的斷裂之後,第二章繼續舉證吳爾芙在《燈塔行》 (To the Lighthouse) 中所探討的瞬間感受與文字表達之間永恆的斷裂。不同於意識流對語言的溝通功能之樂觀看法,本章援引克莉絲蒂娃的斥物化理論(abjection)探究小說主人翁Lily對語言表達功能限制之哀悼。據此,本章以為Lily的繪畫過程這種「母性言語」補償了Lily失去她的精神母親角色(Mrs. Ramsay)那無以言說的感受。所以,本章以心理分析式的閱讀推論Lily的主體囿限於語言牢籠,她的主體意識受擾於那些無法以父性象徵語符言說的母性斥物(abject)的回返。 在整部小說所談時停時行的繪畫過程敘事中,Lily其實無時無刻不在重建她所感受到的斥物侵擾與分裂,此意向性的過程(the signifying process)也形成了本論文所提出的「異質主體」。
    最後,論文的第三章借用雅各布森,羅蘭巴特的隱喻(metaphor)理論,以及克莉絲蒂娃的心理治療理論來檢驗吳爾芙最成功的「意識流」作品《浪濤》(The Waves)裡所呈現的「美學空間」與「異質主體」等要素。本章首先分析六個主要人物不同的語言連結類型,並觀察他們在毀滅性的傷痕經驗前後的轉變。其次,本章也借用克莉絲蒂娃《黑色的太陽》裡的「反憂鬱理論」(counterdepressant)來檢驗《浪濤》最後一章裡,Bernard冗長的結語式獨白所顯現的「心情的浪濤」。從吳爾芙就Bernard心情浪濤的隱喻性寫法,本章整理出吳爾芙人物「心理幽暗的角落」與其說是意識流評論所謂「澄澈之心」可以靠文字表述的脈絡,無寧説這心理的角落是糾纏在克氏詩歌語言理論裡所謂「符號驅力」(the semiotic)與「象徵秩序」(the symbolic)之間的辯證模式中。吳爾芙小說中語言的現代性不僅引領我們跨越她筆下的「班奈特先生」—寫實主義式描摹物質世界的限制,並讓我們跨出意識流評論家「再現」所謂的「澄澈之心」的固定的詮釋。可以說小說中詩歌的要素使吳爾芙的小說變成巴特式的「政治與意識形態不住之所」或是克氏所形容的上帝的神聖缺席後,隱隱釋出的天啟。
    Virginia Woolf (1882-1941) has long been associated with stream-of-consciousness novels in Anglo-American Modernism. By examining the poetic elements or the modernity of language in her novels, this study tentatively shifts Woolf from the fixed connotation of the “unified subjectivity” in the stream-of-consciousness school, or Anglo-American Modernism, to “the heterogeneous sense of subject.” Specifically, this study borrows literary theories of French modernity, among others, of Jakobson in the 1950s and of Barthes and Kristeva in the 1970s, to revisit Woolf’s three prestigious stream-of-consciousness novels: Mrs. Dalloway, To the Lighthouse and The Waves. The purpose of this study is to enrich the conversation of Woolf scholarship with the “aesthetic space” between the real (or the author’s intention) and novel writing. That is, taking Woolf’s lamentation for the problematic language into consideration, we trace the materiality of language, the maternal enunciation or the metaphorical language in Woolf, which she employs to point out the existence of the unspeakable, such as the sense of emptiness or nihilist “death in life.” In contrast to the “Author God” in realism or the “unified subject” in stream-of-consciousness fiction, the survey of the materiality of language in Woolf’s novels entails a heterogeneous sense of subjectivity.
    The study is divided into three main chapters, apart from Prologue and Epilogue. Chapter One borrows Kristeva’s theory of poetic language to examine the symptoms of the returned semiotic chora in Mrs. Dalloway. In contrast to the link between the characters’ private perceptions and public expressions of the London scenes (or events) discussed by some Woolf critics, this chapter focuses on the rift space (and its reconstruction) functioned by the returned chora that is shown in Woolf’s London writing. This practice reveals the chora that flickers among the characters conscious’ activities and haunts the symbolic order by accident, making Kristevan genotexts of Woolf’s London writing.
    After demonstrating that “poetic language” forms the aesthetic rift between the characters’ private perception towards London and the symbolic writing, Chapter Two goes on to exemplify the eternal void between immediate perception and verbal expression that Woolf explores in To the Lighthouse. Again, different from the confidence in the communicative function of language evident in the stream-of-consciousness perspective, by using Kristeva’s theory of abjection, I trace the character Lily Briscoe’s lamentation for the verbal expression of immediate perception and show the “maternal enunciation” of painting, which compensates for the unspeakable sense of loss of her mother figure, Mrs. Ramsay. In this sense, our psychoanalytic reading of the novel assumes that the subject is conditioned by the limit of language, and the unspeakable maternity or the abject returns and haunts the consciousness of the “subject.” So during Lily’s intermittent painting process throughout the novel, Lily reconstructs every moment of abjection she experiences and works out a heterogeneous sense of self.
    Finally, Chapter Three of the present study employs, among others, Jakobson’s and Barthes’ discourses of metaphor and Kristeva’s psychotherapeutic theory to solidify the assumption of the “aesthetic void” between the real and writing and demonstrate the heterogeneous sense of self in Woolf’s most accomplished novel, The Waves. In carrying out this analysis, I trace the different language association types of the six main characters and observe their transformation before and after the deconstructive fatality. And by the last chapter of the novel, Bernard’s final soliloquy, I put into play Kristeva’s theory of counterdepressant and examine Bernard’s “waves of mood.” Reading the metaphorical writing of the rising and falling waves of mood, I demonstrate that “the dark places of psychology” in Woolf’s characters are not as transparent as a stream-of-consciousness mind, but as the “semi-transparent envelop,” which is entangled between Kristeva’s dialectical modes, the semiotic and the symbolic, in her theory of poetic language.
    By the poetic elements in Woolf’s novels, the modernity of language in Woolf leads us to cross not only the limit of “Mr. Bennett”—the realist “representation” of the material world—but also that of the “transparent mind”—the “representation” of the inner world in the stream-of-consciousness reading. The poetic elements or the modernity of language in Woolf’s novels become a Barthesian “politically and ideologically uninhabitable place” and, in terms of Kristeva, shed an apocalyptic light after the absence of the ultimate Divinity.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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