|題名: ||Conflict and/or symbiosis: wildness, symbiosis, and animism in Miyazaki 's animated films|
|作者: ||曾德嘉;Tseng, Ter-chia|
|關鍵詞: ||環境倫理;生態論述;野性;共生;泛靈論;environmetal ethic;ecocriticism;wildness;symbiosis;animism|
|上傳時間: ||2010-01-10 23:12:14 (UTC+8)|
In recent years, environmental issues have been highly noticed and discussed since our environment has been abused seriously. Many scholars and critics have launched into the field of ecocriticism. Ecocriticism deals with the relationship between man and the natural environment and attempts to find a solution to the environmental crisis. The cause of the crisis in our environment is attributed to the improper manner we have toward nature and unrestrained exploitation of natural resources. Recently, animated films with ecological consciousness have played an important role in the representation of different aspects of ecological concepts. Hayao Miyazaki, a world acclaimed Japanese animation director, expresses his ecological awareness and his concern for the environmental issues in his films. In addition, the relationship between man and natural beings is also strongly stressed.
The thesis aims to explore different phases of ecological consciousness in his animated films. The discussion will set out from the perspectives of the value of wildness, the significance of symbiosis, and the animistic view indigenous societies maintain, which leads to their harmony with natural environment. In the first chapter, wildness, which is highly valued by Henry David Thoreau, is considered to be a fundamental element of nature. With the description by Miyazaki, the life force of wildness is mainly manifested through the preserving of life by the leading characters. In the second chapter, the conflict and symbiosis between man and nature will be discussed through the interaction between human characters and nonhuman characters in the films. The significance of symbiosis is brought out from the serious consequence of conflict between humans and natural beings. The symbiotic viewpoint is regarded as the solution to the depletion of the environment. In the third chapter, the animistic view, a universal concept of indigenous communities, that considers all things are alive and ensouled will be examined. A spiritual ecology derived from the animistic view leads the indigenous people to respect their land and live harmoniously with it. In Miyazaki’s films, the animistic and spiritual view is conveyed through the reverence the characters give to the deities and other natural beings. The respect for all natural beings leads the characters to live harmoniously with/in their surroundings. The discussion of ecological issues will focus mainly on the three pieces: My Neighbor Totoro, Princess Mononoke, and Nausicaä of the Valley of Wind. His other works will be mentioned to support the main arguments.