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    Title: Sexual/ gender subversion and multiplicity in The Hours
    Other Titles: 《時時刻刻》中的性/別顛覆與多元性
    Authors: 賴建文;Lai, Chien-wen
    Contributors: 淡江大學英文學系碩士班
    黃逸民;Huang, I-min
    Keywords: 賤斥;意識型態;父權;他者;異性戀霸權;性別操演;女同志連續體;多元性;abjection;ideology;patriarchy;women as the Other;heterosexism;gender performativity;lesbian continuum;multiplicity
    Date: 2007
    Issue Date: 2010-01-10 23:11:51 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 透過當代女性主義與性別研究觀點,本論文主旨在於檢視《時時刻刻》中壓迫三位女主角的父權與異性戀霸權。維吉尼亞‧吳爾夫 (一九二三)、蘿拉‧布朗 (一九四九)、克勞麗莎‧福瀚 (一九九九)三人面對的是極相似的壓抑、憂鬱跟人生難題。麥可‧康寧漢不只呈現出以上兩種意識型態的宰制與霸權,也提供了對三位女主角困境的解決之道,並且傳達他身為作者想表達的意念。為分析三位女主角為何及如何被壓迫,以及她們如何顛覆父權與異性戀霸權並找到出路,我在論文中分為三個階段/三章詳加申論:壓抑期、壓迫期、女性認同與顛覆。
    首章由分析三位女主角各自在這關鍵的一天裡的遭遇看出她們被剝奪的人生,並道出她們賤斥的故事。朱莉亞‧克莉斯多娃《恐怖的力量》裡的賤斥理論有助於分析三位女主角內心裡引發抑鬱的陌生的自我,並讀出她們的進退兩難:面對或是逃避自我內在的賤斥。
    第二章用以下理論檢視父權與異性戀霸權如何壓迫三位女主角:路易斯‧阿圖塞的意識型態理論、西蒙‧波娃《第二性》裡女人如何變成他者的理論、以及茱蒂‧巴特勒《性別麻煩》裡的性別操演理論。
    第三章運用安菊‧瑞曲的「女同志連續體」概念,指出三位女主角之間、她們與其他女人之間的互相認同與經驗分享有助於解決她們的困難。作者麥可‧康寧漢、導演史蒂芬‧戴爾卓、以及編劇大衛‧海爾皆致力於傳承維吉尼亞‧吳爾夫的信念:熱愛真實的自己,熱愛生命。《時時刻刻》不僅宣導人們應該熱愛自己與生命,更加闡述了認同自己性/別的重要性。
    結論說明麥可‧康寧漢在《時時刻刻》裡欲傳達的主旨與解決方法:性/別多元性。康寧漢試圖告訴讀者:唯有拋棄性/別二分法與單一框架,異性戀、酷兒、雙性戀皆能以多元的心態面對人生的困境,面對真實的自己;性向與性/別不再是綁住人們的框架,一個人的主體性才是重要的。康寧漢提倡的性/別多元性鬆綁了《時時刻刻》裡原被框制住的角色們,終使她們能面對人生的難題,自由地選擇想要的人生。
    Through a contemporary feminist and gender reading, this thesis aims to examine the oppression of patriarchy and heterosexism on the three leading female characters in The Hours. Virginia Woolf (1923), Laura Brown (1949) and Clarissa Vaughan (1999) seem to share similar repression, melancholy and life dilemmas. Michael Cunningham not only presents the domination and hegemony of the two long-lasting ruling ideologies, but also provides his solutions to the three women and conveys his authorial intention. To analyze why and how the three women are oppressed, how they subvert patriarchy and heterosexism and find a way out, I divide my thesis into three stages/ chapters: a time of repression, a time of oppression and a time of identification and subversion.
    The first chapter discusses what the three women are encountering and facing in each of their crucial one day, and each one’s deprived life tells her story of abjection. Julia Kristeva’s theory of abjection in Powers of Horror helps to analyze the stranger within each of the three women and their dilemmas to face the abject or not.
    Chapter Two examines how patriarchy and heterosexism oppress the three women through Louis Althousser’s theory of ideology, Simone de Beauvior’s theory of women as the Other in The Second Sex and Judith Butler’s theory of gender performativity in Gender Trouble.
    The third chapter indicates how the three women’s identification with one another helps solve their problems and difficulties finally through Adrienne Rich’s concept of “lesbian continuum.” Michael Cunningham, the director Stephen Daldry and the screenplay writer David Hare all hope to hand down Virginia Woolf’s belief—to love one’s own life for what it is. The Hours illustrates that one should not only love one’s own life, but also love and identify with one’s own sex and gender.
    The conclusion reveals that the theme and solution Cunningham’s The Hours aims to convey to the readers is multiplicity. Cunningham tries to tell the readers— to forsake dichotomies and fixed unity, to face the difficulties of life and who one is no matter one is straight, queer or bi. Sexual orientations or gender is no longer important; what matters is one’s own subjectivity— to love one’s own self, to love the life one chooses and to choose the life one loves. Such multiplicity and diversity Cunningham advocates no longer restrict and repress the characters, but make them face the difficulties and dilemma, finally bringing them to truly choose the lives they want by their free will.
    Appears in Collections:[英文學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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