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    題名: 臺灣與中國大陸高等教育評鑑制度比較之研究
    其他題名: A comparative study on the evaluation system of higher education between Taiwan and mainland China
    台灣與中國大陸高等教育評鑑制度比較之研究
    作者: 張元興;Chang, Yuan-hsin
    貢獻者: 淡江大學高等教育研究所碩士班
    楊瑩;Chan, Ying
    關鍵詞: 臺灣;中國大陸;高等教育;評鑑制度;Taiwan;Mainland China;Higher education;Evaluation System
    日期: 2009
    上傳時間: 2010-01-10 23:00:52 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究主要採用文件分析法與G. Z. F. Bereday之比較研究法,旨在針對臺灣與中國大陸高等教育評鑑制度進行比較分析。主要目的包含:
    一、釐清高等教育評鑑的相關概念與內涵。
    二、分析兩岸高等教育的近三十年來的重要政策改革。
    三、探討兩岸高等教育評鑑制度的緣起、發展沿革,及制度的建構。
    四、探討兩岸高等教育評鑑制度建構的情形、執行現況、面臨的問題及可能發展的趨勢。
    五、比較分析兩岸高等教育評鑑制度的實施、面臨的問題及發展趨勢。
    六、根據比較分析的結果提出可供未來相關政策改革參考之建議。
    本研究之主要結論可歸納如下:
    一、有關高等教育之發展
    (一)兩岸高等教育由於快速的擴充,已脫離早期菁英式高等教育模式,積極往大眾化或普及化高等教育的模式發展。
    (二)兩岸高等教育的擴充,在台灣是以私立高等教育之擴充為主,但在中國大陸則是以政府興辦的公立高等學校擴充為主,民辦高校的興起主要是近年來的發展。
    (三)兩岸高等教育均將高等教育卓越化發展訂定為政策之一,其政策之推動,均是以將資源集中投注於少數重點校院為策略。只不過,對重點校院之挑選,在台灣是透過公開競爭申請進行審核,在中國大陸,則是由中央主動挑選,是由上而下的決策過程。
    二、有關高等教育評鑑制度之建構發展
    (一)兩岸高等教育評鑑制度之建構都是因應高等教育擴充後對品質之憂慮而產生。
    (二)兩岸高等教育評鑑制度之推動,最初都是由政府主導及執行,但台灣以逐漸改由民間團體負責執行,中國大陸則仍是由教育部直接負責規劃與執行。
    (三)兩岸高等教育評鑑制度之建構,均是採取邊作邊改的方法,不斷修正改善,但中國大陸早期評估機制之建構曾採取試點方式進行,視試辦結果再逐漸推廣;台灣高教評鑑機制之建構則未採此種試點方式進行。
    三、有關高等教育評鑑制度之實施
    (一)兩岸高等教育評鑑機制均非僅單一制度統一進行,台灣高教評鑑之實施是將一般大學校院和技職校院作區分;中國大陸高教評鑑之實施則是將本科與研究生教育加以區分。
    (二)兩岸高等教育評鑑實施之類別均以多元方式進行,台灣高教評鑑之類別包括校務評鑑、院系所及學程評鑑、學門評鑑、專案評鑑;中國大陸高教評鑑之實施,其本科教學工作水平評估是以學校為單位進行學校整體教學評估,在研究生教育評估方面則是依學科進行評估。
    (三)兩岸高等教育評鑑實施之過程,均以自評為主,並包括專家實地訪視。不過台灣的系所評鑑是以認可制為主,其結果分為通過、待觀察及未通過三種;中國大陸的普通高校本科教學工作水平評估則採取等第方式公布其評估結果,分為優秀、良好、合格及不合格等四種。
    (四)兩岸高等教育之評鑑(中國的普通高校本科教學工作水平評估,及台灣的大學系所評鑑)均以五年一輪的方式辦理。
    四、有關高等教育評鑑制度實施之問題
    (一)兩岸高等教育評鑑制度對不同類型校院皆使用相同評鑑項目或指標,對如何促使各高等教育機構發展其辦學特色,均仍待努力。
    (二)兩岸高等教育評鑑結果公布後,對受評對象後續之改善情形,追蹤考評機制均待加強。
    This study mainly, via adopting the methods of document analysis and comparative study, developed by G. Z. F. Bereday, aims to compare the evaluation systems of higher education evaluation between Taiwan and Mainland China. This study firstly starts with a clarification of concepts related to higher education evaluation. Then this study analyzes the development of higher education in Taiwan and mainland China in the recent 3 decades before exploring their higher education evaluation systems. Afterwards the focus of this study is on the comparison of the higher education evaluation systems between these two societies, including the establishment and development. of their mechanisms, their implementation, and results of evaluation up to now.
    The main conclusions of this study can be summarized as follows:
    1.Higher education in Taiwan and mainland China have moved from the old ''elite'' pattern into ''universal'' and ''mass'' higher education , respectively.
    2.Private Sector plays an considerably important role in the provision of higher education in Taiwan, but higher education in mainland China is mainly provided by the public institutions.
    3.''Pursuing for excellence'' or ''establishing world-class universities'' are taken by both societies as main priority policies in their higher education reform.
    4.The higher education evaluation systems in both societies are mainly derived from the great concern of the public towards the declining quality caused by the rapid expansion of higher education.
    5.The evaluation systems of higher education in both societies have been initiated by their governments, and modified gradually through the experiences learned from their practical operations.
    6.Higher education evaluation in both Taiwan and mainland China have both adopted diversified systems to operate. In Taiwan, its system is operated by different agencies for different types of higher education institutions, but in mainland China, higher education evaluation is conducted separately according to the degree levels of higher education, e.g., undergraduate programmes and postgraduate programmes are evaluated by different agencies under the direct supervision of the Ministry of Education.
    7.In both societies, higher education evaluation systems are based upon the self-evaluation reports of the higher education institutions, and accompanied by the peer review or site visit.
    8.Higher education evaluation in Taiwan is conducted on the basis of program accreditation system, and its results are divided into the following three types: ''accredited'', ''conditional accredited'' and ''not-accreditated''. But the higher education evaluation (for the teaching programs of undergraduate courses (for the first degree) in mainland China is conducted at the institution level, and its results are graded into the following four types: ''distinction'', ''good'', ''pass'', and ''not-pass'' (e.g. fail).
    顯示於類別:[高等教育研究所] 學位論文

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