本文探討人名地名翻譯的種種現象，以及翻譯時可能遇到的問題和困擾，並在可能範圍內提出解決問題的建議。全文分西譯中及中譯四兩個方向討論，前者分(1)譯音難準，(2)譯名是否應中文化？(3)依何種語文發音翻譯？(4)譯名不統一，(5)何時音譯？何時意譯等五節。後者包括(1)採何種漢語羅馬拼音系統？(2)譯名不統一，(3)拼音譯名常無法回譯成中文等三節。結論中提出翻譯人名地名的一些原則性建議，並呼籲推廣譯名統一，推廣漢語拼音統一。 This survey deals with various phenomena that occur in the translation of personal and geographical names, and problems and difficulties which may been countered in translation; and at the same time the survey provides, insofar as possible, suggestions which may lead to solving these problems.
The text of the survey is divided into two directions of discussion: the translation of Occidental languages into Chinese and vice versa. The former is subdivided into five sections: (1) inaccuracy of phonetic translation, (2) sinicization of a translation, (3) choice of the language base of phonetic translation, (4) non-uniformity of the translation of names, and (5) use of phonetic or literal translation.
The latter contains three sections: (1) choice of the Chinese romanization system, (2) nonuniformity in the translation of names, and (3) frequent inability to restore the phonetic translation of names to the original Chinese ones.
In conclusion, suggestions are made which can serve as principles in the translation of personal and geographical names, and an appeal is made to promote uniformity in the translation of names and to advocate unifying Chinese romanization systems.
Key words: translation problems, translations of personal and geographical names.