O 1s absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and O Kα emission spectroscopy (XES) were performed to study the electronic structure of nanostructured ZnO. The band gap is determined by the combined absorption-emission spectrum. Resonantly excited XES spectra showing an energy dependence in the spectral shape reveal the selected excitations to the different Zn 3d, 4s, and 4p states in hybridization with O 2p states. The partial density of state obtained from local density approximation (LDA) and LDA+U calculations are compared with the experimental results. The LDA+U approach is suitable to correct LDA self-interaction error of the cation d states. The atomic eigenstates of 3d in zinc and 2p in oxygen are energetically close, which induces the strong interaction between Zn 3d and O 2p states. This anomalous valence band cation-d–anion-p hybridization is verified by taking into account the strong localization of the Zn 3d states.
Physical Review B (Condensed Matter and Materials Physics) 70(19), 195325(5pages)