The charge state and local ordering of Mn doped into a pulsed laser deposited single-phase thin film of ZnO are investigated by using x-ray absorption spectroscopy at the O K-edge, Mn K-edge and L-edge, and x-ray emission spectroscopy at the O K-edge and Mn L-edge. This film is ferromagnetic at room temperature. EXAFS measurement shows that Mn2+ replaces the Zn site in tetrahedral symmetry, and there is no evidence for either metallic Mn or MnO in the film. Upon Mn doping, the top of O 2p valence band extends into the bandgap, indicating additional charge carriers being created.
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 19(17), pp.172202(7pages)