The electronic structure of the phospho-olivine LixFePO4 was studied using soft-x-ray-absorption (XAS) and emission spectroscopies. Characteristic changes in the valence and conduction bands are observed upon delithation of LiFePO4 into FePO4. In LiFePO4, the Fe-3d states are localized with little overlap with the O-2p states. Delithiation of LiFePO4 gives stronger hybridization between Fe-3d states and O-2p states leading to delocalization of the O-2p states. The Fe L-edge absorption spectra yield “fingerprints” of the different valence states of Fe in LiFePO4 and FePO4. Resonant soft-x-ray-emission spectroscopy at the Fe L edge shows strong contributions from resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering (RIXS), which is described using an ionic picture of the Fe-3d states. Together the Fe L-edge XAS and RIXS study reveals a bonding character of the Fe 3d-O2p orbitals in FePO4 in contrast to a nonbonding character in LiFePO4.
The Journal of Chemical Physics 123(18), pp.184717(9pages)