知識經濟是自產業革命以來，資源結構和產業型態起了根本的轉變。近年來，中國大陸雖然積極的推動知識經濟相關產業，但是在科技創新與知識應用的水準上與發達國家相比仍有差距。在未來經濟更朝向全球化的情況下，新信息、技術創新，與激烈的市場競爭將為中國大陸經濟帶來更多的挑戰與新的契機。因本文將宏觀的角度，來討論中國大陸在推動知識經濟產業上所面臨的諸多限制，與進行內部產業結構調整所遭遇的兩難困境，以及比較中國大陸在國際社會的科技競爭能力。最後，我們認為中國大陸必須重視研發與創新、發展信息和其他高科技產業、建設高新技術產業開發區、重視教育和提高人力資本素質、以及加強科技立法、保護知識產權，才能維持一個有利的科技創新環境等策略，來作為中國大陸在推動知識經濟產業的重要參考。 The “knowledge economy”is a fundamental transformation of resource structure and industrial patterns after the industrial revolution. Although China positively attempts to promote such a knowledge economy (including the high-technology industry) in recent years, technological innovation and knowledge application are still less emphasized in China. However, under the global economy, new-coming information, technological innovation, and more competitive markets is bringing China new challenges as well as opportunities. This article employs the macro-perspective to discuss both China's limitations in promoting the knowledge economy and dilemmas in adjusting the industrial structure. Meanwhile, the competitiveness of China's science and technology is also compared with other countries. Finally, this study provides many strategies to maintain an innovative environment which may develop the knowledge economy and industry in China, including the encouragement of technological innovation, the development of information and technological industries, the construction of an advanced technology zone, improvements in education and human capital quality, and support of the legal environment for intellectual property.