Social dominance theory (SDT) provides a comprehensive new understanding of intergroup relations as hierarchy maintaining behaviors. However, its basic predictions, that men are higher in social dominance orientation (SDO) than women, older adults higher than younger, and dominant arbitrary set groups higher than subordinate groups, have not been tested in societies where power relations have recently been reversed. In Taiwan, the Kuomingtang, associated with “other province Chinese” who arrived after World War II with Chiang Kaishek’s army, recently lost an election for the first time in 50 years, giving way to the Democratic Progressive Party, associated with “native Taiwanese Chinese” (previously the politically subordinate group). Survey research among over 600 participants found men and women to have the same levels of SDO, and younger adults to have higher SDO than older. Native Taiwanese Chinese had higher SDO than other province Chinese. There was little evidence of behavioral asymmetry, where the dominant group is more prejudiced and ideological than the subordinate group. Results establish boundary conditions for SDT, implying that for functional reasons, it’s predictions apply to stable social hierarchies only.