The essential oils and extracts of Mylia taylorii and M. nuda were investigated by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, NMR spectroscopy and chemical correlations. Beside several known compounds 13 new constituents including three new carbon skeletons could be identified. Four hydrocarbons with a molecular formula of C15H22 (m/z 202) were identified as myli-4(15)-ene (1), aromadendra-1(10),4(15)-diene (19), aromadendra-4,10(14)-diene (20) and aromadendra-4,9-diene (21). Three oxaspiro-compounds were identified as 7-epi-bourbon-3-en-5,11-oxide (22), guai-3,10(14)-dien-5,11-oxide (23) and guai-3,9-dien-5,11-oxide (24). The absolute configuration of myli-4(15)-en-3-one (5) could be established by chemical correlation. Together with α-taylorione (7) the corresponding 6,11-seco-compound taylopyran (25) with a new carbon skeleton was identified which serves as a precursor to taylocyclane (26) and taylofuran (27). Taynudol (28) contains a new carbon skeleton with a cyclobutenyl structure.