|摘要: ||台灣液化石油氣的經銷通路流程，與美國、日本等先進國家和同樣的開發中國家韓國，基本上並沒有太大的差異，工業使用的大戶銷售，生產者大都以管線輸送方式出售。家庭使用量小的銷售，則採用生產者→經銷商→分裝場→分銷商等流程，售予消費者，所不同者為日本通路較為複雜，其他三國相對較為簡單。由需求量角度觀察，台灣地區液化石油氣主要以家庭使用為主，日本則以家庭使用與工業使用並重，韓國則以家庭用、車輛使用、工業使用三者並重，美國則以石化使用最為重要，顯現各國發展方向並不相同。液化石油氣對外依存度，最高為日本，其次為韓國，台灣居第3，三國對外依存度均超過50%，美國的對外依存度最低，只有12.7%。 台灣液化石油氣過去歷經兩次的市場開放改革。第一次經銷市場開放，本研究的實證研究，以(1)家用液化石油氣的銷售量(2)全部家用液化石油氣的銷售量(包括工業用)(3)每戶家用液化石油氣的使用數量等三項指標為開放前後的比較基礎，均證實市場開放有增進市場交易量的效果，支持打破連續性獨占提高經銷效率的推論。同理，依據相同的比較指標，觀察進口市場開放前後的情況，亦同樣的證實進口市場開放，有增進市場效益的結果。惟此兩階段市場開放的效益，以液化石油氣最終價格變化為觀察指標時，卻未能發覺「保證」「一定」有正面之效果。 最後，本研究針對液化石油氣上下游廠商垂直合併的效果進行分析，首先對垂直合併後的正面與負面效果提出觀察所得。其次依據美國法院相關判決的例示及其行政主管機關的合併準則，建立垂直整合審核的三階段準則：(1)市場力量的衡量(2)反競爭效果的評估(3)廠商增進效率抗辯理由的考量等三項標準，提供競爭政策主管機關，審理核駁垂直合併的參考。此外，本研究亦探討事業垂直結合後，可能採行的不公平競爭行為，主管機關應特別注意者有(1)價格與非價格的勾結(2)掠奪性訂價(3)拒絕交易(4)差別待遇等四大類型。
In general, the transportation and distribution patterns ofLiquidified Petroleum Gas ("LPG") in Taiwan are not significantlydifferent from those adopted in most developed or developing countriessuch as Japan, the United States, or Korea. For industrial customers,LPG is most commonly delivered through pipelines. Although differencesexist between the more complicated Japanese system and those of theother three countries, residential users usually receive their neededLPG through conventional distribution channels that verticallyconsists of LPG suppliers, distributors, and retailers. Demand- sideanalysis by this project reveals that LPG are principally demanded byresidential users in Taiwan, residential and industrial users inJapan, residential vehicle and industrial users in Korea, andpetrochemical users in the United States. In terms of the importanceof foreign import to domestic demands, Japan has the highest rate ofreliance, followed by Korea and Taiwan. The rates of reliance onforeign LPG import for these three countries all exceed 50%. For theUnited States, the rate is 12.7%, the lowest of the four countries. Tounderstand the impact of the policy of opening the distribution marketfor LPG in Taiwan, we first conduct an empirical study in this projectby comparing the data regarding (1) the sales of LPG for family use,(2) the total sales of LPG including those for industrial uses, and(3) the quantities of LPG used per household, before and after themarket-opening policies were implemented. The result of the studysupports the expectation that deregulation of the LPG distributionmarket would increase market sales, could avoid thesuccessive-monopoly problem associated with limited-entry regulation,and will increase its overall efficiency. In a similar vein and bycomparing the similar data, we also find that the policy of openingthe LPG import market brings about the identical beneficial effects inthat market. However, when the data regarding the final price changesbefore and after the markets were deregulated were used as theproxies, we find the previous conclusion on the welfare effect fromderegulation to be less robust. Finally in this project, we conduct ananalysis on the market impacts of vertical combinations among LPGsuppliers, distributors,and retailers in Taiwan. Economic theoriesrelating to the pro and anticompetitive effects of vertical mergerswere first elaborated upon, followed by the legal analysis of verticalmergers under antitrust law. In particular, we rely on the decisionsmade by the U.S. courts and the Vertical Merger Guideline issued byits Department of Justice to propose a three-stage investigation onthe vertical combinations activities in the LPG market of Taiwan. Theproposal will requires the enforcement agencies to measure of thedefendant's market power, to evaluate the real and potentialexclusionary effects in connection with the alleged verticalcombinations, and the tradeoff between their anticompetitive andefficiency-enhancing effects. In addition, we also point out some ofthe post-merger unfair contractual arrangements that are likely to beimplemented by LPG market participants, including price and nonpricecollusion, predatory pricing, refusal to deal, and discriminatorytreatments.