本研究目的在探討財務會計準則公報第十八號「退休金會計處理準則」實施後，公司管理當局是否可能會試圖影響精算師對確定給付退休金辦法下淨退休金成本之精算，作為盈餘管理的工具，以及其會計影響因素。並探討90 年2 月22 日新修訂第十八號公報，其修訂前後對盈餘管理動機之影響。而盈餘管理動機以實是性會計理論(Positive Accounting Theory)發展而來的債務契約假說、政治成本假說、洗大澡假說、損益平穩化假說為研究範園。本研究還取89~92 年度138 家上市上櫃公司為研究對象，研究結果發現:1.第十八號公報修訂實施前: (1)公司總資產越大時，淨退休金成本會越大。(2) 負債比率、洗大澡變數和盈餘變動結果增滅，與淨退休金成本之間的關條未獲支時。2. 第十八號公報修訂實施後:負債比率、總資產、洗大澡變數和盈餘變動與淨退休金成本之間的關係未獲支持。3. 實施前後對盈餘管理動機之影響:負債比率、總資產、洗大澡變數和盈餘變動與淨退休金成本之間的關係在實施前後差異不顯著，表示第十八號公報修訂實施前和實施後對盈餘管理情況並無顯著之影響。 The purpose of this study is to identify accounting choice variables that are significant determinants of net periodic pension cost as measured in the revised SFAS No. 18 "Accounting for Pension Costs." Specifically, this paper examines whether the listed firms on the Taiwan Stock Market use net periodic pension cost as a means to manage earnings. Positive accounting theory forms the basis for the analysis. The analysis includes investigation of the relationships among net periodic pension cost and
closeness to debt constraints, political sensitivity, "big bath" approach, and income smoothing. The sample consisted of 138 listed firms on the Taiwan Stock Market from 2000 through 2003. Empirical findings of the study are summarized as follows: 1. Results of the multivariate tests for the pre-pronouncement data support the political costs hypothesis. However, they are inconsistent with the debt covenant, big bath, and income smoothing hypotheses. 2. Results of the multivariate tests for the post-pronouncement data, however, indicate that debt covenant, political costs, big bath, and income smoothing hypotheses are not supported by the empirical evidence. 3. The comparison of the pre-pronouncement to the post-pronouncement data show that the proxies for debt covenant, political costs, big bath, and income smoothing are not significantly different. This finding suggests that the earnings management motives seem to play an insignificant role before and after the issuance of the revised statement.