|摘要: ||哈佛教授Robert Kaplan 與諾朗諾頓研究所執行長David Norton所共同發展出來之「平衡計分卡」是一個整合「策略」所衍生出來的量度新架構，從90 年代發展至今，成功導入之國外企業不在少數，而國內己導入平衡計分卡之上市公司僅15% ;國內企業在導入過程中認為最主要的困難在於關鍵績效指標( KPI) 的訂定，原因在於績效指標的訂定與績效本身並不具因果關係。
過去平衡計分卡相關研究以個案或利用問卷與訪談進行研究者居多，本文採單變量及多變量分析，研究結果顯示: (一)財務構面中，資訊電子業的資本投資報酬率愈高，其企業績效愈高，而營業毛利成長率與企業績效間則為負向關條:整體傳統產業的股東權益報酬率與企業績效呈正向關係，但應收帳款週轉率和企業績效間為負向關係; 另外在個別傳統產業分析中發現紡織、電機、化學、鋼鐵及塑膠產業的股東權益報酬率愈高，其企業績效愈高，此一結果與整體傳統產業一致;化學產業的應收帳款週轉率和企業績效間為正向關係，但營業毛利成長率與營業費用比率愈低，其企業績效愈高。(二)顧客構面中，資訊電子業及整體傳統產業的顧客退貨率愈低，其企業績效愈高;資訊電子業的顧客滿意度與企業績效間則為正向關係;傳統產業的市場
The balanced scorecard (BSC) is a new approach to strategic management developed by Robert Kaplan, a Harvard professor, and David Norton, the chief-executive-officer (CEO) of the Nolan Norton Institute. Since its introduction to the business world in the early 1990's, BSC has been implemented by a great deal of foreign enterprises. However, only 15% of public companies in Taiwan have successfully adopted this new technique. These firms have found that the main difficulty in BSC implementation is to define the key performance indicator (KPI), due to an ambiguous causal relationship between KPI and organizational performance.
Most BSC studies in Taiwan used the manufacturing industry and the service industry as their research sample. It is easier to construct the KPI for the manufacturing industry, compared to other industries, given the distinguishable characteristics and performance measurement. In Taiwan, conventional firms and electronics firms comprised of more than 80% of the manufacturing industry. However, most research examined the relationship between KPI and organizational performance using
electronics firms. Little academic research has been devoted to testing that relationship using conventional firms. Therefore, this study is intended to identify the appropriate proxies of the four BSC perspectives (i.e., financial, customer, internal business processes, learning and growth) for the electronics firms and the conventional firms, respectively. Moreover, the research explores the relationship between the BSC proxies and business performance. The proxies that are significant determinants
of the organizational performance are compared and contrasted as well. Extant BSC literature is mostly case studies or field research using questionnaires or personal interviews. Different from the prior research, this paper employs various univariate and multivariate tests. With respect to the financial perspective, the study found a positive relationship between return on investment and organizational performance and a negative relationship between change in gross margin and organizational
performance for the electronics firms. On the other hand, return on equity is positively associated with organizational performance for the conventional firms. The opposite direction was found for the relationship between accounts receivable turnover and business performance. A more focused analysis with breakdown of conventional firms indicates that return on equity is positively related to organizational performance for the textile, electrical, chemical, steel, and plastic firms, which is consistent with the aforementioned finding for the total conventional firms. In addition, the results for the chemical firms show a positive association between accounts receivable turnover and organizational performance, but a negative relationship between change in gross margin and organizational performance and between operational expenses and organization performance.
Examining the proxies for the customer perspective, the results indicate that the lower the sales return ratio is, the higher the corporate performance will be for the electronics and conventional firms. The study also found that customer satisfaction is positively related to business performance for the electronics firms and that market share is positively associated with organizational performance for the conventional firms. Further analysis with breakdown of conventional firms indicates a positive relationship between customer satisfaction and business performance, a result consistent with the aforementioned finding for the electronics firms. With regard to the perspective of internal business processes, this paper found that the lower the idle assets rate was, the higher the organizational performance would be for the electronics firms. On the other hand, research and development intensity and inventory turnover are positively related with business performance for the conventional firms . An analysis of industrial classification of the conventional firms found that inventory turnover is positively associated with corporate performance for the construction firms.
Among the proxies for the learning and growth industry, employee satisfaction is found to be positively related to organizational performance for the electronics and conventional firms. A more focused analysis with breakdown of conventional firms also indicates a positive relationship between employee satisfaction and organizational performance. On the contrary, the analysis shows that the education level of employees is negatively associated with business performance for the plastic firms.