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    題名: 政策制定者應用政策知識之困境分析
    其他題名: The Difficulty of Policy-Makers in Using Policy Knowledge
    作者: 陳恆鈞
    貢獻者: 淡江大學公共行政學系
    關鍵詞: 政策制定者;政策知識;應用;政策系絡;policy-maker;policy knowledge;utilization;policy context
    日期: 2001-12
    上傳時間: 2013-04-11 14:38:09 (UTC+8)
    出版者: 臺北市:臺灣政治學會
    摘要: 當公共政策日趨複雜之際,政策研究者亦全力的進行研究和調查,試圖產生思慮周全的政策和累積相關的政策知識。這種知識必需廣為散佈與應用,方能解決政策問題,進而提高國家的競爭力,達成公共政策的總目標。然而,令人沮喪的是,政策分析的結果雖然在質與量方面有大幅的增加,多數的研究卻顯示政策制定者很少將它真接應用於決策過程。充其量這些知識只能改變政策制定者對政策問題的觀念看法。 
    本文主要是探討何以政策知識未能受到政策制定者普遍應用,以及在何種情形之下政策制定者會重視政策知識。由於政策知識的解釋不僅具有主觀性,實際應用在政策過程中更是充滿變化,因此政策知識的應用就像其他政策過程中的活動,同樣面臨政治壓力。基於此,從政策系絡來分析政策制定者應用政策知識的情形是有必要的。
    決策可以被視為一種強調知識的活動,而一個政府的政策能力與政策制定者對政策知識所抱持的態度有著緊密關係。然而,政策制定者與政策知識之間的關係實難明確界定。職是之故,本文試圖將政策制定者在決策機關的表現行為與政策知識應用的相關文獻探討結合在一起,以便進一步瞭解政策制定者與政策知識的互動。基本假設是每位政策制定者對其職責與政策知識應用的看法也不相同。 
    本文主要內容是(1)探討現有理論模式(特定知識理論、政策制定者限制理論以及二元社群理論),說明不足之處,並提出另一種整合模式;(2)分析影響政策制定者應用政策知識的因素(包括政策制定者的決策型態;政策制定者的特質;政策制定的環境系絡;政策制定組織之特質);(3)提出改善政策知識應用方法;(4)提出結論及未來相關的建議。
    As policy problems have become more complex, policy researchers have tried their best to result in thoughtful policy decisions and valuable policy knowledge. To promote the capacity of state’s competitiveness, his policy knowledge should be used and diffused.
    Regardless a growth in the volume of policy knowledge in the past decades, most research indicate that governmental policy-makers’ did not make direct use of policy knowledge. To an extent, policy knowledge only changes policy-makers’ conceptualization of policy problems.
    The purpose of this paper is to explore why policy-makers are unlikely to use policy knowledge, and under what conditions policymakers wil1 use it. To do so, the policy context needs be examined in understanding the extent and types of policy knowledge use. In other Words, policy-makers’ behavior in the decision-making settings must be incorporated into the policy knowledge utilization literature.
    In addition, the policy capacity of government is closely related to policy-makers’ attitude to policy knowledge. However, the relationship between policy-makers and policy knowledge has always been difficulty to define. In contrast to conventional conceptualizations of policy knowledge utilization, this paper tries to examine the differences among policy-makers, expecting they do not view their responsibility or attempt to use policy knowledge the same way.
    The main content of this paper is fourfold: first of all, through a review and integration of these theories (knowledge-specific theory, policy-maker’s constraint theory, and the two communities theories), this paper puts forward another synthesis model. Secondly, it identifies four main influential factors (including the policy-making types, the features of policy-makers, the decision-making context, and the features of decision-making setting) for policy-makers in using policy knowledge. Thirdly, some remedies for improving policy knowledge utilization are presented. Finally, it makes some conclusions and suggestions for future research.
    關聯: 臺灣政治學刊=Taiwan Political Science Review 5,頁 132-177
    DOI: 10.6683/TPSR.200112.5.132-177
    顯示於類別:[公共行政學系暨研究所] 期刊論文

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