This study investigates the out-of-sample hedging effectiveness and dynamic hedge ratios of floor-traded and E-mini futures with VAR, ECM, bivariate GARCH, Kaiman filter, and Markov regime switching in the S&P500 and Nasdaq-100 markets. The empirical results show that both the floor-traded and E-mini futures can be good instruments to be used as hedge objectives. The correlation coefficient between spot and futures increases and hedge effectiveness goes up when the hedging period is extended. Moreover, the bivariate GARCH and Markov regime switching show a higher HEI performance in short-term and long-term hedging periods, respectively. Furthermore, floortraded futures with an open outcry system surprisingly do better than E-mini futures contracts. This study proposes meaningful evidence of hedging strategies for investors with different spot index, hedging periods, and trading mechanisms.
Quarterly Journal of Business and Economics 44(3-4), pp.49-68