This paper presents a radiometric thermometer for non-invasive measurement of the internal body temperature. The proposed radiometric thermometer designed in 1.575 GHz band consists of a near-field probe and a high gain Dick radiometer. A phantom based on Agar material was developed to emulate the real tissue of skin and muscle for experiments. The measured results show that the active probe antenna provides additional 12.5 dB gain with noise figure less than 1dB, and the radiometer has a system gain of 50 dB and total noise figure of 1.738 dB at 1.575 GHz. The output voltage measured by the proposed 1.575 GHz microwave radiometer is 2.994 V when the water temperature is set to 25 °C, while it is 3.129 V when the water temperature is set to 80 °C. The study demonstrates that using the active probe connected to the radiometer can identify temperature difference of the body.
Journal of Electromagnetic Waves and Applications 37(4), p.490-509