The COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019 has severely affected the education sector. In order to avoid clustering, higher education has begun to implement a large number of e-learning courses. Alt-hough modern technologies are relatively mature, learning outcomes do not entirely depend on advanced technologies. The purpose of this study is to explore how self-directed learning and the information literacy of university students affect their e-learning attitude, and to understand the variables that mediate their effects on the learning effectiveness. This is a survey research and a survey questionnaire was used to collect data. A total of 714 valid samples were retrieved. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine the reliability and validity of each varia-ble, and the latent variable modeling was utilized to test the research hypotheses. The results showed that self-directed learning and information literacy had a significant positive impact on e-learning attitudes and learning effectiveness, and e-learning attitudes had a significant positive influence on the learning effectiveness. Through the structural model verification analysis, it was found that e-learning attitudes are the main intermediary mechanism among all of the variables. By comparing multiple intermediary variables, it was found that self-directed learning, as an independent variable, exerted indirect effects on the learning effectiveness through e-learning.