In the natural science curriculum, chemistry is a very important domain. However, when conducting chemistry experiments, safety issues need to be taken seriously, and excessive material waste may be caused during the experiment. Based on the 11-year-old student science curriculum, this paper proposed a virtual chemistry laboratory, which was designed by combining a virtual experiment application with physical teaching materials. The virtual experiment application was a virtual experiment laboratory environment created by using selected experimental equipment cards in combination with augmented reality (AR) technology. The physical teaching materials included all virtual equipment required for experiment units. Each piece of equipment had corresponding cards for learners to choose from and utilize in specific experimental operations. It was hoped that students were able to achieve the desired learning effectiveness of experimental teaching while reducing the waste of experimental materials through the virtual experimental environment. This study employed the quasi-experimental and questionnaire survey methods to evaluate both learning effectiveness and learning motivation. Eighty-one students and eight elementary school teachers were surveyed as research subjects. The experimental results revealed that significant differences in learning effectiveness existed between the experimental group and control group, indicating that the application of AR technology to teaching substantively helped enhance students’ learning effectiveness and motivation. In addition, the results of the teacher questionnaire demonstrated that the virtual chemistry laboratory proposed in this study could effectively assist with classroom teaching.