The development of SnO2 and TiO2 polycrystalline nanofiber devices (PNFDs) has been widely researched as a method of protecting humans from household air pollution. PNFDs have three significant advantages. The nanofibers before the annealing process are polymer‐rich materials, which can be used as particulate material (PM) filters. The multiporous nanofibers fabricated by the annealing process have numerous defects that can serve as generation‐recombination centers for electron–hole pairs, enabling the PNFDs to serve as multiple‐wavelength light (from 365 to 940 nm) detectors. Lastly, the numerous surface/interface defects can drastically enhance the toxic gas detection ability. The toxic gas detection range of PNFDs for CO(g) and NO(g) is from 400 to 50 ppm and 400 to 50 ppb, respectively. Quick response times and recovery properties are key parameters for commercial applications. The recovery time of NO(g) detection can be improved from 1 ks to 40 s and the PNFD operating temperature lowered to 50 °C. These results indicate that SnO2 and TiO2 PNFDs have good potential for commercialization and use as toxic gas and photon sensors in daily lives.