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    Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://tkuir.lib.tku.edu.tw/dspace/handle/987654321/121326


    Title: Impact of Copper-containing Effluent on Irrigation Water Quality in Taiwan
    Other Titles: 放流水銅濃度對於灌溉水質之影響
    Authors: WANG, SHENG WEI;FAN, CHIHHAO
    Keywords: Copper;Water quality;Printed circuit board manufacturing;Agricultural irrigation;;水質;印刷電路板製造業;農業灌溉
    Date: 2021-03
    Issue Date: 2021-09-24 12:13:30 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: Heavy metal contamination of paddy fields mostly results from the introduction of polluted irrigation water and the discharge of industrial wastewater into irrigation channels has been observed as a major cause for the deterioration of irrigation water quality. The printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing is an important industry for Taiwanese economic growth since the 1970s. Treated wastewater is permitted discharge to an irrigation channel. However, low copper (Cu) concentration may accumulate in the downstream irrigation channels, sediment, and paddy fields by introducing Cu-containing irrigation water. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of discharge effluent Cu on irrigation water quality. According to historical water quality monitoring data, electric conductivity (EC), suspended solids (SS), Chloride (Cl), sulfate (SO42-), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), sodium (Na), and Cu concentrations significantly increased due to the discharge of PCB processing wastewater. Stepwise regression analysis was applied and showed that EC could be regarded as an indicator of PCB-effected irrigation water. To assess the distribution of Cu, the Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP) was employed to simulate Cu transport in irrigation channels. Two wastewater discharges containing 1,392.1 and 17,870 kg/day of Cu increased downstream Cu concentration above the irrigation water quality standard, supporting a hypothesis that 86.08 hectares of agricultural paddy fields were contaminated by Cu. Improvement in the wastewater treatment efficiency and/or ocean outfall construction are the possible options to reduce Cu contamination in the paddy fields. Besides, the establishment of an early-warning system regarding irrigation water quality irregularity using a real-time sensor, such as indicator EC could be helpful to achieve sustainable agricultural water resource development.
    臺灣農地重金屬污染大多源自於受污染的灌溉用水所致,工業排放廢水進入灌溉渠道導致灌溉水質劣化,自1970年代起,印刷電路板製造業便是臺灣經濟成長的重要產業,經處理後的廢水即可藉由搭排進入灌溉渠道,然而低濃度銅可能透過引灌而累積於下游渠道底泥與農地,因此本研究目的為評估經廢水處理後尚含低濃度銅之放流水,對於渠道灌溉水質的影響。依據歷年調查成果顯示經處理後的廢水仍使水中導電度、懸浮固體、氯鹽、硫酸鹽、氨氮、鈉、銅等濃度皆顯著上升,本研究應用逐步回歸分析歸納導電度可做為此類廢水對於灌溉水質影響之水質指標,且本研究應用水質模式(WASP)建立渠道中銅濃度傳輸行為,選定之兩處放流口銅排放量分別為1,392.1與17,870 kg/day,模擬結果顯示廢水雖符合排放規定,然仍可能造成下游銅濃度超過灌溉水質標準,甚至造成約86.08公頃農地發生銅污染,為避免污染情形一再發生,提升廢水處理效能或海洋放流皆為未來可行方案,再者,導入如導電度等之即時監測設備以建立灌溉水質預警系統,亦為重要推動方向,俾利農業水資源永續發展。
    Relation: Taiwan Water Conservancy 69(1), p.42-55
    DOI: 10.6937/TWC.202103/PP_69(1).0003
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute & Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering] Journal Article

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