The North American Journal of Economics and Finance
This paper applies a Diagonal BEKK model to investigate the risk spillovers of three major cryptocurrencies to ten leading traditional currencies and two gold prices (Spot Gold and Gold Futures). The daily data used are from 7 August 2015 to 15 June 2020. The dataset is analyzed in its entirety and is also subdivided into four distinct subsets in order to study and compare the patterns of spillover effects during economic turmoil, such as the 2018 cryptocurrency crash and the COVID-19 pandemic. The results reveal significant co-volatility spillover effects between cryptocurrency and traditional currency or gold markets, especially during the whole sample period and amid the uncertainty raised by COVID-19. The capabilities of cryptocurrency are time-varying and related to economic uncertainty or shocks. There are significant differences between normal and extreme markets with regard to the capabilities of cryptocurrency as a diversifier, a hedge or a safe haven. We find the significant co-volatility spillover effects are asymmetric in most cases especially during the COVID-19 pandemic period, which means the negative return shocks have larger impacts on co-volatility than positive return shocks of the same magnitude. Evidently, cryptocurrencies and traditional currencies or gold can be incorporated into financial portfolios for financial market participants who seek effective risk management and also for optimal dynamic hedging purposes against economic turmoil and downward movements.
The North American Journal of Economics and Finance 57, 101443