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    Title: Origin of magnetic properties in carbon implanted ZnO nanowires
    Authors: Wang, Y.F.;Shao, Y.C.;Hsieh, S.H.;Chang, Y.K.;Yeh, P.H.;Hsueh, H.C.;Chiou, J.W.;Wang, H.T.;Ray, S.C.;Tsai, H.M.;Pao, C.W.;Chen, C.H.;Lin, H.J.;Lee, J.F.;Wu, C.T.;Wu, J.J.;Chang, Y.M.;Asokan, K.;Chae, K.H.;Ohigashi, T.;Takagi, Y.;Yokoyama, T.;Kosugi, N.;Pong, W.F.
    Date: 2018-05-17
    Issue Date: 2018-11-08 12:11:16 (UTC+8)
    Publisher: Nature Publishing Group
    Abstract: Various synchrotron radiation-based spectroscopic and microscopic techniques are used to elucidate the room-temperature ferromagnetism of carbon-doped ZnO-nanowires (ZnO-C:NW) via a mild C+ ion implantation method. The photoluminescence and magnetic hysteresis loops reveal that the implantation of C reduces the number of intrinsic surface defects and increases the saturated magnetization of ZnO-NW. The interstitial implanted C ions constitute the majority of defects in ZnO-C:NW as confirmed by the X-ray absorption spectroscopic studies. The X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectra of O and C K-edge respectively indicate there is a reduction in the number of unpaired/dangling O 2p bonds in the surface region of ZnO-C:NW and the C 2p-derived states of the implanted C ions strongly affect the net spin polarization in the surface and bulk regions of ZnO-C:NW. Furthermore, these findings corroborate well with the first-principles calculations of C-implanted ZnO in surface and bulk regions, which highlight the stability of implanted C for the suppression and enhancement of the ferromagnetism of the ZnO-C:NW in the surface region and bulk phase, respectively.
    Relation: Scientific Reports 8(1), 7758
    DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-25948-x
    Appears in Collections:[Graduate Institute & Department of Physics] Journal Article

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