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    題名: 從引用文獻的視角探討wiki之使用 : 以台灣棒球維基館為例
    其他題名: Usage of wiki from the perspective of citation analysis : a case study of TaiwanBaseballWiki
    作者: 李易昶;Lee, Yi-Chang
    貢獻者: 淡江大學資訊與圖書館學系碩士班
    林信成;Lin, Sinn-Cheng
    關鍵詞: Citation Analysis;citation location;citation topic;TaiwanBaseBallWiki;wiki;引用文獻分析;引用主題;引用位置;台灣棒球維基館
    日期: 2017
    上傳時間: 2018-08-03 14:55:38 (UTC+8)
    摘要: 本研究主要目的為探討wiki資源被學術著作引用的狀況。網路資源與維基百科因存活狀況不定的問題通常避免作為學術研究之參考,但近年的研究顯示網路資源及維基百科被引用的情況日益增加,但尚未深入了解研究者如何引用此類資源。台灣棒球維基館是以台灣棒球為主題的wiki,已蒐集大量資料且擁有超過4億次的瀏覽量,先前針對不同的使用族群進行分析,本研究則針對引用者的引用方式及被引用資料的變動深入探討。
    本研究利用引用文獻分析台灣棒球維基館自成立十年間引用台灣棒球維基館的學術著作。研究對象為261篇學術著作的460筆參考文獻,藉此觀察作者的參考文獻著錄情況、引用方式及被引用頁面的變動狀況與趨勢。
    研究結果顯示,參考文獻正確率與完整度方面,參考文獻應著錄的頁面作者名稱、頁面標題、檢索日期、網站名稱、最後更新日期及網址這六項資訊,84.03%筆參考文獻著錄至少三項資訊,本研究認為頁面標題與網址應為引用此類資源之必備資訊。460筆參考文獻中,僅28筆(6.09)參考文獻完整著錄六項資訊,152筆(35.19%)筆參考文獻同時遺漏兩項資訊的狀況為最多,其中又以遺漏網站名稱及最後更新日期為最多。正確率部分,19.51%筆參考文獻將頁面作者名稱誤植為頁面最近編輯作者或相關組織名稱、37.64%筆參考文獻將網站名稱誤植為維基百科相關或組織的網站名稱。參考文獻中作者名稱的資訊應填入「TwBsBall編者」,而網站應為「台灣棒球維基館」為正確資訊。被引用位置主要集中於研究結果、文獻探討與緒論等三個位置,可能原因是部分學位論文結構分界不明,使得研究結果篇幅較多,而參考文獻於文中對應的引用文獻數以1或2個為主,無對應引用文獻可能是作者對於不同的資源抱持不同的態度,而未確實撰寫引用文獻。引用主題集中在人物、事件、台灣棒球維基館相關、聯盟與組織、歷史、賽事與球隊等主題,受該研究主題影響而集中於不同位置,其中碩士論文部分以教育、民生及傳播學門領域系所引用較多,共占62.96%的引用次數。被引用頁面方面,台灣棒球維基館被引用頁面存活狀況良好,97.82%被引用頁面仍存活,被引用頁面通常僅被引用1或2次且內容相對完整,如大事記及歷史。台灣棒球維基館首頁共被引用109次,可能是作者取巧僅以引用首頁的而非引用確切的頁面。被引用頁面標題變動相對穩定,被引用頁面內容過半數變動幅度不超過25%,但變動幅度可能隨時間增加。如針對wiki語法進行更動,雖不影響內容,但仍會使HTML原始碼產生變動。人物、賽事、組織、術語、球隊及事件等六個分類的頁面被引用最多,通常為涵蓋多人或多年的資訊、當時社會所關注或具研究價值的頁面。被引用頁面的編輯趨勢可能與頁面所承載的資訊類別有關,但頁面是否熱門可能為主要因素。
    根據研究結果提出的建議有以下三點:學術研究者撰寫引用文獻及參考文獻時應盡責,以免後續研究者無法查證引用資料或相關研究者無法蒐集正確且完整的資料,甚至違反學術倫理。引用格式規範針對wiki資源的引用給予適度規範,或是針對wiki資源的特性給予特別的指引,現僅APA格式指引作者以線上參考工具書引用維基百科。台灣棒球維基館頁面資訊應避免呈現容易使作者混淆之資訊,嵌入頁面應提醒作者其內容更新時間,另外應推廣wiki本身的「引用此頁」功能。
    This study is aimed to study how wiki resources were cited in academic works. Online resources and Wikipedia were not recommended to be cited due to the unstable accessibility. However, in recent studies it shows that there are more and more citations from web resources and Wikipedia. The reason why and how the authors cited these resources as references were unknown. Take TaiwanBaseballWiki for example. It is a wiki page with baseball-related knowledge of Taiwan and it has collected mass data and accumulated more than 400 million page views. The focus of a previous study was on different user groups and this study is aimed to study how the authors cited TaiwanBaseballWiki and how the cited pages have changed.
    This study investigated how academic works citing TaiwanBaseballWiki and the changes in the cited pages. A total of 460 references cited from TaiwanBaseballWiki used in theses, journal articles, conference papers and books were gathered for analysis. This study is focusing on reference accuracy and completeness, citation locations, citation topics, the changes of cited pages, the types of changes, and the trend in edits.
    The results of the study revealed that:
    (1) Six kinds of information which are the name of the page author, the page title, the site name, the access date, the date of the latest update, and the URL should be included in reference and 84.03% of the 460 references had at least three of them. We considered that the page title and the URL should be necessary. Only 28 (6.09%) references had all the information. 152 (35.19%) of the 460 references were lack of 2 kinds of the information at the same time, among which the combination of missing site names and missing dates of last update was the most. Two kinds of information that the authors couldn’t handle well were the names of the page authors and the names of the cited sites. 19.51% citations misused recent author names of the pages or other related organizations names for page author names; 37.64% citations misused the names of other sites also built by wiki or other official website names of related organizations. The correct page author name should have been “TwBsBall contributors”; and the correct site name should have been “TaiwanBaseballWiki” or “Wiki Baseball”.
    (2) Most of the citations were used in the following sections: the research results, the literature review and the introduction. Some boundaries of IMRaD structure were not clear. Each reference could mainly relate to 1 or 2 citations in the content, and while some of them had no corresponding citations, the possible reason for which was that the authors might hold different attitude toward wiki resources. Some of the authors would write the citations improperly.
    (3) Citation topics were mainly used in figures, events, TaiwanBaseballWiki related information, organizations, history, games, and teams. The research subject would affect the locations of citations. Theses and dissertations of disciplines of teacher training and education science, personal services, and journalism and information were cited the most, a total of 62.96% citations.
    (4) The cited pages in TaiwanBaseballWiki are usually cited 1 or 2 times. Most of them are in good condition, and the contents of them are more complete, such as the memorabilia or the history. The homepage has been cited 109 times and the possible reason was that author trickily cited the site instead of the page used.
    (5) Most of the titles of cited pages remained unchanged and the change in the page content was less than 25%. However, it might increase as time goes by. Some changes were made due to wording or layout issues, such as the changes in the HTML codes.
    (6) The six categories cited the most were figures, games, organizations, terminology, teams, and events, in which there are usually information of multiple people, multiple years, topics attracting much attention from the society or those worthwhile researching at that time. The trend in edits of cited pages might be related to the category of the page. Nonetheless, popularity might be the major factor behind the increasing edits from contributors and it may be more obvious than the trend.
    The suggestions based on the findings of this study are as followed:
    (1) Researchers should be responsible for writing reference and citations correctly and completely. Do not hold different attitudes towards various citation resources. If your reference and citations are incorrect, the researchers in the future could not retrieve the literature they need, nor will they obtain the correct data, which might violate the academic ethics.
    (2) Citation style guides or manuals should provide instruction on how to cite wiki resources, especially for the specific features of wiki. For now, only Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association provided a specific instruction on how to cite Wikipedia as an online reference.
    (3) TaiwanBaseballWiki should improve the information provided, reduce the chance of confusing authors, such as recent authors of the page, and the edits should be contributed to “TwBsBall contributors”. Besides, wiki provides the special function called “cite this page” but it seems that author don’t know it. TaiwanBaseballWiki should promote this function more.
    顯示於類別:[資訊與圖書館學系暨研究所] 學位論文

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