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    Title: 探尋屬於我們的民主教室 : 輔以班會對話分析
    Other Titles: In search of our democratic classroom
    Authors: 詹皓雲;Chan, Hao-Yun
    Contributors: 淡江大學課程與教學研究所碩士班
    張月霞;Chang, Yueh-Hsia
    Keywords: Class Meeting;community;Democracy;Democratic Education;Discourse Analysis;民主;民主教育;共同體;班會;對話分析
    Date: 2017
    Issue Date: 2018-08-03 14:39:09 (UTC+8)
    Abstract: 教育哲學家Dewey(1916)指出:民主並不僅是一種政府形式,它主要是一種共同生活的模式,也是協同溝通經驗的模式。本研究即因有感於學校教育中民主環境之不足,而欲實踐、記錄、省思一段努力在班級中營造民主環境的歷程,最終勾勒出一個民主教室成長的真實樣貌。
    為建立民主環境,研究者先以Dewey關於民主與共同體的論述,和佐藤學學習共同體的理念為典範,析理出民主教室經營的四項原則:教師身教、安心氛圍、協同學習、自主參與。再者,研究者選擇能使學生主動參與班務的班會,以其對話作為觀察分析學生民主程度改變的媒介,因此另從Habermas、Freire等多位學者的理論整理出民主言談的四個特性:互為主體性、開放性、倫理性、批判性,並參酌審議式民主的原則設計班會活動。
    本研究採批判取向的質性研究,研究者兼任五年級新班級的導師,參與觀察整段研究歷程,另有一位協同研究的教師,提供完全觀察的局外人視角。在一個學期的研究期間,研究者以自身的研究日誌,與學生在班會討論的對話錄音,作為分析的主要資料,從中探見許多屬於「我們這一班」的民主價值。
    研究者以三種角度闡述研究結果與發現,一是順敘性的敘寫師生共構民主教室的蹣跚歷程;再則從學生的人物故事,析論民主成長的景象與不民主的原由;三從普似為對立的幾組價值觀切入,說明我們這處民主教室在處遇的社會環境中所面對的矛盾與困頓,以及我們應對的方式與心態。
    從研究結果析見的結論是:民主素養的本質終究是「愛」,有愛才能包容與接納。而要求得民主,主導者就需尋求成員間主體性的平衡,才能發自內在形成真正的共同體。欲觀察民主成長的程度,則可視一個體是否從自以為是走向多元開放,後能理性的擇善固執。經營民主教室實屬不易,不僅需要耐心呵護,更需認知其沒有範本、沒有終點的特性,探尋民主,就是探尋獨一無二的自我。
    最後,對學校教育者的建議是:應常態進行實質的學生自治活動,並增加協同性的學習活動、多關注於學習者內在的多樣性。對有意進行民主教育研究者的建議則是:能多探究情意教學在民主教室中的效果、運用更富有後設思維的作法收集資料,亦可探討公民行動的學習對建立民主共同體的影響。
    Given that school education had failed to practice democracy thoroughly, the researcher, as a fifth-grade teacher, tried hard to build a democratic environment in his classroom. The purpose of this study was to outline a realistic state of democratic growth during class meetings in the classroom, where the dialogues among the teacher and the students were collected in order to record and analyze their change. Thus, this study reviewed theories on democracy, community, class meeting and discourse analysis.
    Qualitative research method was adopted to depict the difficult progress in democracy cultivation. After the analysis, the researcher gave thick description from three aspects:(1) to see the process as a ship journey which always rises and falls on the sea,(2) to list democratic literacy and communication disability factors grounded from his students’ stories, and (3) to discuss some paradoxical values that influenced and shaped the development of this democratic classroom.
    From the study we drew conclusions: (1) The essence of democracy literacy is definitely “Love”. (2) Achieving democracy is to maintain the balance among subjects. (3) Democracy progress can be told by the dynamic change (from self-centered to open-minded) the rational insistence on good virtue. (4) Managing a democratic classroom needs a lot of patience. There’s no ideal model to follow, and it’ll never be totally accomplished. Nevertheless, we can always find democracy in our living fields.
    Finally, the researcher offered the suggestions to the schools and the future researchers caring about democratic education.
    Appears in Collections:[Master's Program, Graduate Institute of Curriculum and Instruction] Thesis

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