本文探討馬格里布回教移民在法國的融合過程。首先，經濟分配不公常引發暴動(例如2005年巴黎市郊暴動)，產生融合難題，但非自殺式攻擊。近兩年來，回教移民後裔所發動接二連三恐怖攻擊，研究中心轉向經濟背後更深層因素，因為此等行為觸及意識形態以及屬靈精神領域。這些恐怖份子皆與伊斯蘭國極端組職有聯繫。故法國共和人士面臨此等威脅時，提出大革命之最大遺產政教分離，亦可稱為«國家去宗教化(laïcité)»，來作為精神武裝，欲以此剔除法國社會中的宗教性(回教)，保有民主本色(自由、平等、兄弟情誼)。弔詭的是，國家去宗教化卻內含類宗教性之神聖價值:«共和»。此類宗教性卻近似天主教，兩世紀以來兩者之間有牽扯不清的關係:一則引為精神導師、二則轉而視之為仇寇。由此，法國共和主義在爭論不休的回教頭巾問題中，所受到不只是外在的服裝衣著的挑戰，和激進回教徒(法國公民)藉此擴散極端思維，更在於在既有的法國共和屬靈領域之外，另尋他徑，不但破壞法國之統一完整性，使得法國共和主義失去原先世俗與神聖兩端的專斷力量。此等國家危機激化法蘭西國族認同意識，不僅強化自我防衛機制，而且強烈要求回教移民認同法國共和主義。回教移民的年輕世代卻因此倍受排擠，不見容於法國社會，竟皈依回教乞求歸屬感。«國家去宗教化»適得其反。融合，終難有成。 Muslim integration has long been the major concern in the French society. The Paris attacks in January and November of 2015 only made the concern even more worrying that the integration problem may have led to radicalization of young descendants of Muslim immigrants. The attacks and possibly more in the future only not aggravate Islamophobia but also alert the populists against immigration to demand a stricter border control to protect France from any future attack from outside. The populist movement may feed the radicalization and vice versa, both of which antagonize the crisis of national identity that French people seek to rebuild. However, on the one hand, the crisis of national identity has less to with immigrants than the globalized market economy that cuts through national borders and makes state less capable of allocating and redistributing resources to its citizens. The credibility of state is thus at stake. On the other hand, Muslims are not as reluctant to integrate as they are portrayed to be. Most of them are French and their doubt of Frenchness is only provoked by media or politicians. It seems that the more the French society works to integrate Muslims, the less it succeeds because it III
presupposes the necessity to be engaged in such a social engineering; that is, only through laïcité, the core of republican value, can the goal of living together (vivre-ensemble) allegedly make possible among all immigrants, minorities, and the French nationals. Presumably, the more emphasis on laïcité, the lesser need for Muslims to proselytize Islam by wearing scarves in the public and praying on the city streets. Laïcité has its sacred value, which brings itself close to civil religion. Laïcité may therefore lose its appeal for Muslims to restrain themselves from self-expression of their religion in public. The biggest challenge that Muslims may pose is not really the terrorist attack on civilians, but the spirituality that Islam offers is not tamed but in competition with laïcité. Laïcité will not serve to integrate Maghreb Muslim immigrants.